Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary - P : Part 1


package documentation the product description and user documentation ( Reference : SC7:12119)
Packaged Software Customisation Where a decision is made to acquire an existing product to provide the major component of the required functionality. Note: When function point counting count only the functionality required by the client. ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
parallel run Operation of two information processing systems, a given one and its intended replacement, with the same application and source data, for comparison and confidence. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
Parametric Estimating An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an estimate. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Pareto analysis The analysis of defects by ranking causes from most significant to least significant. Pareto analysis is based on the principle, named after the 19th-century economist Vilfredo Pareto, that most effects come from relatively few causes, i.e., 80% of the effects come from 20% of the possible causes. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Pareto Diagram A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Party Each of the two or more enterprises who enter into an agreement to acquire or supply a system or a component of the system, be it product or service. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
Path A set of sequentially connected activities in a project network diagram. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Path Convergence In mathematical analysis, the tendency of parallel paths of approximately equal duration to delay the completion of the milestone where they meet. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Path Float See float. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Pattern A pattern is a 64-bit image, organized as an 8-by-8-bit square, which is used to define a repeating design (such as 16 stripes) or tone (such as gray). Patterns can be used to draw lines or shapes or to fill areas. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
PC Personal Computer (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
PCTE tool a CASE tool that uses the facilities of a PCTE implementation ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-3)
PD0005 Alternative title for the BSI publication A Code of Practice for IT Service Management. ITIL Sept 2002
PDR See Project Delivery Rate ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
peer review A review of a work product, following defined procedures, by peers of the productís producers for the purpose of identifying defects and improvements. In the [SE-CMM] questionnaire, this is called a defect review. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
peer review leader An individual specifically trained and qualified to plan, organize, and lead a peer review. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
perceived risk See risk perception ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Percent Complete (PC) An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work which has been completed on an activity or group of activities. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Perfective Maintenance The modification of a software product after delivery to improve performance or maintainability. Perfective maintenance provides enhancements necessary to improve software performance (e.g., person-machine interface enhancements), maintainability or other software attributes. Perfective maintenance does not implement new system requirements. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
performance The degree to which a system or component accomplishes its designated functions within given constraints, such as speed, accuracy, or memory usage. IEE STD 610.12-1990 ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Performance GSC One of the 14 general system characteristics describing the degree to which response time and throughput performance considerations influenced the application development. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Performance Reporting Collecting and disseminating information about project performance to help ensure project progress. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
performance requirement A requirement that imposes conditions on a functional requirement, for example, a requirement that specifies the speed, accuracy, or memory usage with which a given function must be performed. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Performing Organization The enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in doing the work of the project. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
periodic review A review that occurs at specified regular time intervals. (See event-driven basis for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
periodic review/activity A review or activity that occurs at specified regular time intervals. (See event-driven review/activity for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Persistence (of a data group) a quality describing how long the data group is retained in the context of the Functional User Requirements. Three types of persistence are defined: transient (exists only for the life of a functional process), short (beyond the life of a functional process for as long as the software is operational) and indefinite (beyond the duration of operation of the software) Reference :Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
PERT Chart A specific type of project network diagram. See Program Evaluation and Review Technique. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Phase See project phase. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
physical architecture The hierarchical arrangement of product and process solutions, their functional and performance requirements, their internal and external (external to the aggregation itself) functional and physical interfaces and requirements, and the physical constraints that form the basis of design requirements. The physical architecture provides the basis for system/configuration item baselines as a function of the acquisition phase. It documents one or more physical designs as required to (1) accomplish effectiveness analysis, risk analysis, and technology transition planning; (2) establish the feasibility of physically realizing the functional architecture; (3) identify manufacturing verification, support, and training requirements; (4) document the configuration of prototypes and other test articles; and (5) define in increasing detail the solution to identified needs. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
physical characteristics The physical attributes or distinguishing features that pertain to a distinctive quality. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
physical interface requirement The performance, electrical, environmental, human, and physical requirements and constraints that exist at a common boundary between two or more system elements, configuration items, or systems. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
physical requirement A requirement that specifies a physical characteristic that a system or system component must possess (for example, material, shape, size, weight). [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
PIR Post-implementation Review (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
pilot project A project designed to test a preliminary version of an information processing system under actual but limited operating conditions and which will then be used to test the definitive version of the system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
pixel smallest element of a screen display; short for Ďpicture elementí ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
Plan Feasibility Study / Cost Benefit Study/ Project Initiation Rep / Terms of Reference ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Planned Finish Date (PF) See scheduled finish date. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
planned profile Profile representing the projected time-phased demonstration of a technical parameter requirement. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Planned Start Date (PS) See scheduled start date. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
planned value Predicted value of the technical parameter for the time of measurement based on the planned profile. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
point measure of vertical distance; there are approximately 2.8 points to the millimetre (approximately 72 points to the inch) ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
policy A guiding principle, typically established by senior management, that is adopted by an organization or project to influence decisions. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
policy A guiding principle, typically established by senior management, that is adopted by an organization or project to influence and determine decisions. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
policy A guiding principle, typically established by senior management, which is adopted by an organization or project to influence and determine decisions. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
PR Problem Record (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
practice a software engineering or management activity that contributes to the creation of the output (work products) of a process or enhances the capability of a process ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
Practice A technical or management activity that contributes to the creation of the output (work products) of a process or enhances the capability of a process. (ISO 15504 part 9) ( Reference : ISO/TC159/SC4/WG 6:HCLP-PAS)
practice An activity, or set of activities, that contributes to the achievement of a process area purpose. These practices are of two types: base practices and generic practices. (See also base practice and generic practice.) [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by boxes (or nodes). Activities are linked by precedence relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Precedence Relationship The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In current usage, however, precedence relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are widely used interchangeably regardless of the diagramming method in use. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Predecessor Activity (1) In the arrow diagramming method, the activity which enters a node. (2) In the precedence diagramming method, the "from" activity. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
preliminary concept operational A conceptual description of how the customer envisions using or how the customer might use the product. This concept gives insight into the reason behind customer desires. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
preliminary design The process of analyzing design alternatives and defining the architecture, components, interfaces, and timing and sizing estimates for a system or component. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
preliminary design review A review conducted to evaluate the progress, technical adequacy, and risk resolution of the selected design approach for one or more configuration items; to determine each designís compatibility with the requirements for the configuration item; to evaluate the degree of definition and assess the technical risk associated with the selected manufacturing methods and processes; to establish the existence and compatibility of the physical and functional interfaces among the configuration items and other items of equipment, facilities, software and personnel; and, as applicable, to evaluate the preliminary operational an support documents. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
preventive action action taken to eliminate the cause of a potential nonconformity (4.5.2) or other potentially undesirable situation. NOTE 1 - Preventive action is taken to prevent occurrence whereas corrective action (4.5.5) is taken to prevent recurrence. NOTE 2 - Preventive action typically stems from risk analysis and risk assessment. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Preventive maintenance Changes to hardware or software performed to prevent future defects or failures. For example, restructuring programs or data to improve maintainability or to prevent defects. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
primary functions Those essential tasks, actions, or activities that must be accomplished to ensure that the system will satisfy customer needs from a system life-cycle perspective. The eight primary system life-cycle functions are development, manufacturing, verification, deployment, operations, support, training, and disposal. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
prime contractor An individual, partnership, corporation, or association that administers a subcontract to design, develop, and/or manufacture one or more products. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
PRINCE Projects IN Contolled Environments (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
PRINCE2 The standard UK government method for project management. ITIL Sept 2002
Priority Sequence in which an Incident or Problem needs to be resolved, based on impact and urgency. ITIL Sept 2002
Probability the likelihood of a specific outcome, measured by the ratio of specific outcomes to the total number of possible outcomes. Probability is expressed as a number between 0 and 1, with 0 indicating an impossible outcome and 1 indicating an outcome is certain. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
problem Unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents. ITIL Sept 2002
problem definition; problem description A statement of a problem, which may include a description of the data, the method, the procedures, and algorithms used to solve it. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
Problem Report A term used to identify and describe problems detected in a software product. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
procedure specified way to perform an activity NOTE 1 - In many cases, procedures are documented, e.g. quality management system procedures. NOTE 2 - When a procedure is documented, the term "written procedure " or "documented procedure " is frequently used. NOTE 3 - A written or documented procedure typically contains the purposes and scope of an activity; what shall be done and by whom; when, where and how it shall be done; what materials, equipment and documents shall be used; and how it shall be managed, controlled and recorded. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
procedure A written description of a course of action to be taken to perform a given task [IEEE-STD-610]. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
procedure A written description of a sequence of actions to be taken to perform a given task. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process system (4.1.1) of activities, which use resources to transform inputs into outputs NOTE 1 - Inputs to a process are typically outputs of other processes. NOTE 2 - Processes in an organization (4.2.1) typically are planned and carried out under controlled conditions and add value. NOTE 3 - A person should be nominated to be responsible for the process. NOTE 4 - A process where the conformity (4.6.1) of the resulting product (4.3.5) with requirements (4.1.7) cannot be readily or economically verified is frequently referred to as a "special process". NOTE 5 - The word "activity" is used here as having its ordinary dictionary meaning. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Process A set of interrelated activities, which transform inputs into outputs. Note - The term "activities" covers use of resources.[TBD: Reference ?] ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
process A system of operation or series of actions, changes, or functions, that bring about an end or result including the transition criteria for progressing from one stage or process step to the next. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process A sequence of steps performed for a given purpose; for example, the software development process. [IEEE-STD-610] ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
process A connected series of actions, activities, Changes etc. performed by agents with the intent of satisfying a purpose or achieving a goal. ITIL Sept 2002
process area A grouping of a purpose and a set of related practices that, when performed collectively, can achieve the purpose of the process area. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process assessment a disciplined evaluation of an organization's software processes against a model compatible with the reference model ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process asset library A library of process assets that exist within a defined architecture that gives structure to the example processes, process fragments, process-related documentation, process architectures, process tailoring rules and tools, and process measurements. [SE-CMM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process assets Example processes, process fragments, process-related documentation, process architectures, process tailoring rules and tools, and process measurements. These assets are to be tailored by a project to form the specific process that it will follow in developing its system. [SE-CMM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process attribute a measurable characteristic of process capability applicable to any process ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process attribute rating a judgment of the level of achievement of the defined capability of the process attribute for the assessed process ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process Capability The ability of a process to achieve a required goal. (ISO 15504 part 9) ( Reference : ISO/TC159/SC4/WG 6:HCLP-PAS)
process capability the ability of a process to achieve a required goal ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process capability The range of expected results that can be achieved by following a process. (See process performance for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
process capability The range of expected results that can be achieved by following a process. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process capability The range of expected results that can be achieved by following a process. (See process performance for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
process capability baseline A documented characterization of the range of expected results that would normally be achieved by following a specific process under typical circumstances. A process capability baseline is typically established at an organizational level. (See process performance baseline for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
process capability baseline A documented characterization of the range of expected results that would normally be achieved by following a specific process under typical circumstances. A process capability baseline is typically established at an organizational level. (See process performance baseline for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
process capability determination sponsor the organization, part of an organization or person initiating a process capability determination ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process capability level a point on the six-point ordinal scale (of process capability) that represents the increasing capability of the performed process; each level builds on the capability of the level below ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process capability level rating a representation of the achieved process capability level derived from the process attribute ratings for an assessed process ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process category a set of processes addressing the same general area of activity ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process context the set of factors, documented in the assessment input, that influence the judgment, comprehension and comparability of process attribute ratings ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
Process control The process of planning and regulating, with the objective of performing a process in an effective and efficient way. ITIL Sept 2002
process description The operational definition of the major components of a process. Documentation that specifies, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a process. It may also include the procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. Process descriptions may be found at the activity, project, or organizational level. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process descriptions Documentation that specifies, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a process. It may also include the procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
process development The act of defining and describing a process. It may include planning, architecture, design, implementation, and validation. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
process dimension the set of processes comprising the functional aspects of the reference model of processes and process capability ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process element The constituent elements of a process. Each process element covers a well-defined, bounded, closely related set of tasks (e.g., estimating element, design element, coding element, and peer review element). The descriptions of the process elements may be templates to be filled in, fragments to be completed, abstractions to be refined, or complete descriptions to be modified or used unmodified. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process enactment technology A specific method of process implementation that involves automation of the transfer and collection of information from entities charged with executing subprocesses or tasks. [Jones - Loral FS] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process evaluation Analysis of process measurements to understand and improve the process. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process improvement action taken to change an organization's processes so that they meet the organization's business needs and achieve its business goals more effectively ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process improvement action an action planned and executed to improve all or part of the software process ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process improvement programme all the strategies, policies, goals, responsibilities and activities concerned with the achievement of specified improvement goals ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process improvement project any subset of the process improvement programme that forms a coherent set of actions to achieve a specific improvement ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process measurement The set of definitions, methods, and activities used to take measurements of a process and its resulting products for the purpose of characterizing and understanding the process. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Process measures Information captured about the development process. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
process outcome an observable result of the successful implementation of a process ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process performance the extent to which the execution of a process achieves its purpose ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process performance A measure of actual results achieved by following a process. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process performance baseline A documented characterization of the actual results achieved by following a process. A process performance baseline is typically established at the project level, although the initial process performance baseline will usually be derived from the process capability baseline. (See process capability baseline for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
process profile the set of process attribute ratings for an assessed process ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process purpose the high level measurable objectives of performing the process and the likely outcomes of effective implementation of the process ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
process tailoring The activity of creating a process description by elaborating or adapting process elements or other incomplete specifications of a process. Specific business needs for a project will usually be addressed during process tailoring. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
process technology The application of a science and/or engineering technology (e.g., tools or methodology) to a process or subprocess ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Processing logic Any of the requirements specifically requested by the user to complete an elementary process, such as validations, algorithms, or calculations, and reading or maintaining a file. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Procurement Planning Determining what to procure and when. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
product result of a process (4.3.1) NOTE 1 - A product may be tangible, e.g. car or lubricant; or intangible, e.g. transport or computer program. NOTE 2 - Service is a type of product that has the following characteristics: - it is intangible; - it is generated by at least one activity necessarily performed at the interface between supplier (4.2.3) and customer (4.2.4) or it needs customer supplied product (4.3.5) e.g. car delivered to be repaired; - it typically involves internal activities by the supplier in order to meet the needs and expectations of the customer. NOTE 3 - A product may be an internal product or an offered product. NOTE 4 - "Product and/or service", when used in the ISO 9000 family of standards, emphasises the applicability to "service". ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
product An outcome of a project, processes, activities or tasks, including a service. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
Product All goods or services including a product which is comprised in another product, whether by virtue of being a component part or the entire product. ( Reference : ISO/TC159/SC4/WG 6:HCLP-PAS)
product Result of activities or processes. (ISO 8402) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
product complete set of computer programs, procedures and associated documentation and data designed for delivery to a user NOTE Also referred to as a software product. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
product The result of a human, mechanical or natural effort or process, such as, a manufacturing process. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
product baseline In configuration management, the initial approved technical documentation (including, for software, the source code listing) defining a configuration item during the production, operation, maintenance, and logistic support of its life cycle. The hardware/software configuration identification established at the end of a development phase. (Reference : ISO/IEC 24765)