Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary - D


data A representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by humans or by automatic means. (IEEE Std 610.12) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
data analysis A systematic investigation of the date and their flow in a real or panned system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
Data attribute A characteristic of an entity. Data attributes are generally analogous to data element types (DETs). ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Data attribute (-type) (Synonym ‘data element type’) the smallest parcel of information, within an identified data group, carrying a meaning from the perspective of the software’s Functional User Requirements Reference :Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
Data communications GSC One of the 14 general system characteristics describing the degree to which the application communicates directly with the processor. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Data Date (DD) The point in time that separates actual (historical) data from future (scheduled) data. Also called as-of date. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Data element type (DET). A data element type is a unique user recognizable, non-repeated field. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Data functions. The functionality provided to the user to meet internal and external data requirements. Data functions are either internal logical files (ILFs) or external interface files (EIFs). ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Data group (-type) a distinct, non empty, non ordered and non redundant set of data attributes where each included data attribute describes a complementary aspect of the same object of interest (see definition). A data group is characterised by its persistence (see definition) Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
data inventory In an information processing system, all the data and their characteristics, including interdependencies. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
Data model A model about data by which a reasonable interpretation of the data can be obtained. In the CASE industry a data model is one that may be encoded and manipulated by a computer. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Data movement (-type) a functional sub-process, identified in the measured software, which moves one or more data attributes belonging to a single data group . There are four types of COSMIC-FFP data movements: Entry, Exit, Read and Write. A COSMIC-FFP data movement is equivalent to a Base Functional Component (BFC) type in [ISO/IEC 14143-1:1998 Information technology – Software measurement – Functional size measurement – Part 1 : Definition of concepts]. A COMIC-FFP BFC expresses only functional user requirements and excludes quality and technical requirements. Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
decision database A repository for storing acceptance criteria. The criteria that a system or component must satisfy in order to be accepted by a user, customer, or other authorized entity. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
decision table A table of conditions that are to be considered in the analysis at a problem, together with the action to be taken for each condition. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
Defect the non-fulfilment of intended usage requirements ( Reference : TC176:8402)
Defect nonfulfilment of a requirement (4.17) related to an intended usage. NOTE 1 - The distinction between the terms defect and nonconformity (4.5.2) is important as it has legal connotations, particularly those associated with product liability issues. Consequently the term defect should be used with extreme caution. NOTE 2 - Intended usage may be affected by the nature of information provided by the supplier (4.2.3) ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Defect A flaw in a system or system component that causes the system or component to fail to perform a required function. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Defect A flaw in a system or system component that has the potential to cause that system or component to fail to perform its required function during execution, [Jones - IBM]. ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Defect A flaw in a system or system component that causes the system or component to fail to perform its required function. A defect, if encountered during execution, may cause a failure of the system. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Defect. A problem which, if not corrected, could cause an application to either fail or to produce incorrect results. The absence of functionality that was specified or required is also considered a defect. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
defect density The number of defects identified in a product divided by the size of the product component (expressed in standard measurement terms for that product). ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
defect prevention The activities involved in identifying defects or potential defects and preventing them from being introduced into a product. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Defect removal See Repair. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
defect root cause The underlying reason (e.g., process deficiency) that allowed a defect to be introduced. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
defined level (See maturity level.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
defined process the operational definition of a set of activities for achieving a specific purpose ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
defined software acquisition process (See software acquisition process.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Definitive Software Library (DSL) The library in which the definitive authorised versions of all software CIs are stored and protected. It is a physical library or storage repository where master copies of software versions are placed. This one logical storage area may in reality consist of one or more physical software libraries or filestores. They should be separate from development and test filestore areas. The DSL may also include a physical store to hold master copies of bought-in software, e.g. a fireproof safe. Only authorised software should be accepted into the DSL, strictly controlled by Change and Release Management. ITIL Sept 2002
The DSL exists not directly because of the needs of the Configuration Management process, but as a common base for the Release Management and Configuration Management processes. ITIL Sept 2002
Degree Of Confidence An expression of the confidence the organisation has in the data provided. In ISBSG Data Collection Package it is expressed in a range 1 - 4:1 = not confident,2 = slightly confident,3 = confident, 4= very confident ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
degree of confidence In this standard the term degree of confidence is used only to mean the degree of confidence that software conforms to its requirements. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
Degree of influence (DI) A numerical indicator of the amount of impact of each of the 14 general system characteristics, ranging from zero to five. These indicators are used to compute the value adjustment factor. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
deliverable Verifiable work product, e.g., detail design or operational code. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
Deliverable A product that is required by the contract to be delivered to the acquirer or other designated recipient. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Deliverable Any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that must be produced to complete a project or part of a project. Often used more narrowly in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Deliverables items whose delivery to the customer is a requirement of the contract ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
Delivered Functional Size The result obtained after applying both stages of Function Point Analysis. Delivered Functional size assesses the functions (processes and data) delivered by the software and the technical and quality features of the delivered software. The units of delivered functional size are adjusted function points. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Delivery Release of a system or component to its customer or intended user. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Delivery rate The productivity measure for creating or enhancing an application. It is expressed by the Project Function Points divided by the Work Effort for the development or enhancement project. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Delta Release A Delta, or partial, Release is one that includes only those CIs within the Release unit that have actually changed or are new since the last full or Delta Release. For example, if the Release unit is the program, a Delta Release contains only those modules that have changed, or are new, since the last full release of the program or the last Delta Release of certain modules. See also 'Full Release'. ITIL Sept 2002
Demonstrative A demonstrative product is a product which proves the relevance of a solution. ( Reference : SC7:14759)
Dependability collective term used to describe the availability performance and its influencing factors: reliability performance, maintainability performance, and maintenance support performance. [IEC 50(191)] NOTE 1 - Dependability is used only for general descriptions in non-quantitative terms. NOTE 2 - Dependability is one of the time-related characteristics of quality (4.1.11). ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Dependency See logical relationship. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
dependency item A product, action, piece of information, etc., that must be provided by one individual or group to a second individual or group so that the second individual or group can perform a planned task. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Derived data Data that requires processing other than or in addition to direct retrieval and validation of information from internal logical files and/or external interface files. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
derived requirements Requirements which may or may not be explicitly stated in the customer requirements, and which may be inferred from contextual requirements, e.g., applicable standards, laws, policy, common practice, and management decisions. Derived requirements can also arise during analysis and design from partitions of the system. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
derived SDS a PCTE SDS generated by application of the mapping defined in this International Standard to a CDIF subject area ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-3)
design process (4.3.1) that transforms requirements (4.1.7) into a set of product characteristics (4.4.1) NOTE 1 - Requirements (4.1.7) include functional and other requirements (4.1.7). NOTE 2 - A qualifier is typically applied to indicate the nature of that being designed e.g. product design or process design. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
design (1) The process of defining the architecture, components, interfaces, and other characteristics of a system or component. The result of the process in (1). [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
design authority The person or organization that is responsible for producing the design of the system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
design constraints Design limitations or implied requirements which constrain the design solution. A form of requirement which constrains the design solution set to a single or limited array of choices. This may include limitations on the logical execution, the physical characteristics, or performance of a system which are implied by a requirement statement, or derived from the analysis of conflicting or overlapping requirements. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
design requirement A requirement that specifies or constrains the design of a system or system component. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
design review a formal, documented, comprehensive and systematic examinaiton of a design to evaluate the design requirements and the capability of the design to meet these requirements and to identify problems and propose solutions ( Reference : TC176:8402)
design review A process or meeting during which a system, hardware, or software design is presented to project personnel, managers, users, customers, or other interested parties for comment or approval. Types include critical design review, preliminary design review, system design review. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
desk checking The manual simulation of program* execution to detect faults through step-by-step examination of the source program for errors in function or syntax. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
DET See Data Element Type DET ( Reference : Total Metrics)
detailed operational concept A detailed description, derived from the preliminary operational concept of the user’s interaction with the system that satisfies the operational need. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Developer An organization that performs development activities (including requirements analysis, design, testing through acceptance) during the software life cycle process. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Development The specification, construction, testing, and delivery of a new information system. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
development process (4.3.1) to specify the product realization process NOTE - The input to the development may include the output of the design, production considerations, logistic support considerations and other inputs. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
development The process of translating a design into hardware and/or software components. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Development Project Set of activities which build one or more software applications. These activities primarily ‘add’ new functionality. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Development project function point count (DFP) A count that measures the functions provided to the users with the first installation of the software delivered when the project is complete. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Development Team The Development Team consists of those responsible for the delivery of the application under development. It comprises: Project Team + Project Management +Project AdministrationDevelopment Team Support - The Development Team Support are responsible for providing specialist services to the Development Team. Support comprises:Data Base Administration+Data Administration+Quality Assurance+Data Security+Standards Support+Audit & ControlTechnical Support ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Development Team Support Development Team Support are responsible for providing specialist services to the Development Team. Support comprises:Data Base Administration+Data Administration+Quality Assurance+Data Security+Standards Support+Audit & ControlTechnical Support ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
 
developmental baseline The specifications that are in effect at a given time for a system under development. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
developmental configuration management The application of technical and administrative direction to designate and control software and associated technical documentation that define the evolving configuration of a software work product during development. Developmental configuration management is under the direct control of the developer. Items under developmental configuration management are not baselines, although they may be baselined and placed under baseline configuration management at some point in their development. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
deviation A noticeable or marked departure from the appropriate norm, plan, standard, procedure, or variable being reviewed. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
deviation A departure from the appropriate requirement, plan, standard, or procedure. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
deviation permit

authorization to depart from the originally specified requirements of a product (4.3.5) prior to realization for a limited quantity or period of time and for a specific use ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
DHS Definitive Hardware Store (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
direct measure a measure of an attribute that does not depend upon a measure of any other attribute ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
Direct measurement method a measurement method designed independently of other measurement methods. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-3)
Discrimination The ability of an FSM Method to react to small changes in the dimensions of the Functional User Requirements being measured ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-3)
Distributed data processing GSC One of the 14 general system characteristics describing the degree to which the application transfers data among components of the application. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
document A uniquely identified unit of information for human use, such as a report, specification, manual or book. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:6592)
document medium containing information EXAMPLE - Paper, magnetic, electronic or optical computer disc, photograph or master sample. NOTE - A document may be a combination of different types of media. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
document equivalent to an item of documentation (cf) ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
documentation A collection of one or more related documents. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:6592)
documentation printed user manuals, on-line documentation and help text which describe how to use a software product ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
documentation development staff all staff involved in any phase of the planning, writing, editing and production of documentation NOTE This includes authors, designers, illustrators and project management staff. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
documentation plan document which sets out the essential elements of the documentation project ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
documentation profile A table of information items describing the content of one or more documents. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:6592)
documented procedure A written description of a course of action to be taken to perform a given task. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
documenter party preparing the documentation NOTE The term developer (as defined in ISO/IEC 12207:1995, definition 3.8) is not used here, as in the case of documentation the developer of the software is often the acquirer of the documentation, and the use of the term developer might be confusing in this context. Consequently the term documenter is used. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
DSL Definitive Software Library (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
Dummy Activity An activity of zero duration used to show a logical relationship in the arrow diagramming method. Dummy activities are used when logical relationships cannot be completely or correctly described with regular activity arrows. Dummies are shown graphically as a dashed line headed by an arrow. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Duration (DU) The number of work periods (not including holidays or other non-working periods) required to complete an activity or other project element. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. See also effort. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Duration Compression Shortening the project schedule without reducing the project scope. Duration compression is not always possible and often requires an increase in project cost. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)