Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary - E


Early Finish Date (EF) In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of an activity (or the project) can finish based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Early life cycle Up to the completion of the system requirements definition. ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Early Start Date (ES) In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of an activity (or the project) can start, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Earned Value (EV) (1) A method for measuring project performance. It compares the amount of work that was planned with what was actually accomplished to determine if cost and schedule performance is as planned. See also actual cost of work performed, budgeted cost of work scheduled, budgeted cost of work performed, cost variance, cost performance index, schedule variance, and schedule performance index. (2) The budgeted cost of work performed for an activity or group of activities. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Earned Value Analysis See definition (1) under earned value. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Edge An edge is a graphic entity that has a single dimension and connects nodes together. An edge's behavior is such that it grows/ shrinks/re-shapes as the nodes it connects are moved around the picture. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
EDI Electronic Data Interchange (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
Effective Adequate to accomplish the intended purpose. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
effective process A process that can be characterized as practiced, documented, enforced, trained, measured, and able to improve. (See also well-defined process.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Effectiveness Producing the intended or desired result. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Effectiveness extent to which planned activities are realised and planned results are achieved ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
effectiveness analysis An analytical approach used to determine how well a system performs in its intended utilization environment. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Efficiency Producing a result with a minimum of extraneous or redundant effort. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Efficiency relationship between result achieved and resources used ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Efficiency The degree to which a system or component performs its designated functions with minimum consumption of resources. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Effort The number of labor units required to complete an activity or other project element. Usually expressed as staffhours, staffdays, or staffweeks. Should not be confused with duration. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
EFQM European Foundation for Quality Management (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
EI See External Input ( Reference : Total Metrics)
EIF See External Interface File ( Reference : Total Metrics)
electronic copy computer disk or other computer-readable medium containing a file or files from which the document can be printed ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
Element a basic system part that has the characteristics of state, behavior, and identification ( Reference : TC184/SC5:14258)
Elementary process. An elementary process is the smallest unit of activity that is meaningful to the user(s). ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
en dash dash the same width as a lower-case ‘n’ ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
Enabling system A system, which facilitates [enables] in the conception, development, manufacturing, operation, support, and disposal functions of another system. [TBD: review it.] ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
Encoding An encoding defines how the elements of a syntax are physically represented using an identified character set. Details of representation of the various terminal symbols and data types in the syntax's grammar are provided. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
end user The individual or group who will use the system for its intended operational use when it is deployed in its environment. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
end user The individual or group who will use the system for its intended operational use when it is deployed in its environment. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
end user See 'User'. ITIL Sept 2002
end user representatives A selected sample of end users who represent the total population of end users. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
endnotes notes collected at the end of a chapter or document ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
End-user efficiency GSC One of the 14 general system characteristics describing the degree of consideration for human factors and ease of use for the user of the application measured. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
engineering The application of science and mathematics by which properties of matter and the sources of energy are made useful to people." (Merriam-Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition ) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
engineering change In configuration management, an alteration in the configuration of a configuration item or other designated item after formal establishment of its configuration identification. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990]. ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
engineering group A collection of individuals (both managers and technical staff) representing an engineering discipline. Examples of engineering disciplines include systems engineering, hardware engineering, system test, software engineering, software configuration management, and software quality assurance. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
engineering requirements A translation of the set of essential customer needs into engineering language, specific to the domain expertise of the engineering staff that is charged with executing the design of the system. Engineering requirements are product requirements that are restated in engineering terms and are suitable for system development. ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
engineering staff The technical people (e.g., analysts, programmers, and engineers, including task leaders), who are not managers and who perform the product development and maintenance activities for the project. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
enhanced capability a capability greater than current assessed capability, justified by a credible process improvement programme ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
Enhancement The modification of an existing application. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Enhancement Project Changes made to an existing application where new functionality has been added, or existing functionality has been changed or deleted. This would include adding a module to an existing application, irrespective of whether any of the existing functionality is changed or deleted. Note: An enhancement project must use the Enhancement Function Point form Dv-2. ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Enhancement Project Set of activities which 'add', ‘change’ or ‘delete’ functions within one or more existing applications, they are usually based on an existing application count which will be modified to reflect the impact of the project activities. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Enhancement project function point count (EFP). A count that measures the modifications to the existing application that add, change, or delete user functions delivered when the project is complete. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Enterprise A business unit, company, corporation or other organization engaged in trading a product or service. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
enterprise a group of organizations sharing a set of goals and objectives to offer products and services ( Reference : TC184/SC5:14258)
enterprise one or more organisations sharing a definite mission, goals, and objectives to offer an output such as a product or service ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
enterprise A unit within a company or spanning several companies within which many projects are managed as a whole. All projects within an enterprise, at the top of the reporting structure, share a common manager and common policies. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
enterprise engineering the discipline applied in carrying out any efforts to establish, modify, or reorganise any enterprise ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
enterprise model a representation of what an enterprise intends to accomplish, how it operates, and, possibly, how it is organized. ( Reference : TC184/SC5:14258)
enterprise object a modelling entity that describes a thing or phenomenon of the real world of the manufacturing enterprise ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
Entity An object (i.e., thing, event or concept) that occurs in a model (i.e., transfer). ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
entity The physical or abstract object that is to be measured. ( Reference : SC7:15939)
Entity (or entity type) A fundamental thing of relevance to the user, about which a collection of facts is kept. An association between entities that contains attributes is itself an entity. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Entity subtype A subdivision of an entity type. A subtype inherits all the attributes and relationships of its parent entity type, and may have additional, unique attributes and relationships. See also Entity type. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Entry (-type) a movement of the data attributes found in one data group from the user’s side of the software boundary to the inside of the software boundary. An Entry does not update the data it moves. Functionally, an Entry sub-process brings data lying on the user’s side of the software boundary within reach of the functional process to which it belongs. NOTE Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
environment the uncontrollable part of a system which is widened to the extent that a decision-making procedure cannot be conceived for the control of such a system ( Reference : TC184/SC5:14258)
environment A collections of hardware, software, network communications and procedures that work together to provide a discrete type of computer service. There may be one or more environments on a physical platform e.g. test, production. An environment has unique features and characteristics that dictate how they are administered in similar, yet diverse, manners. ITIL Sept 2002
environment The circumstances or conditions that will surround the system when it is in use. Examples include the natural environment (weather, climate, ocean conditions, terrain, vegetation, space conditions); combat environment (dust, fog, nuclear-chemical-biological); threat environment (effects of existing and potential threat systems to include electronic warfare and communications interception); operations environment (thermal, shock, vibration, power variations); transportation and storage environment; maintenance environment; test environments; manufacturing environments (critical process conditions, clean room, stress); and other environments (e.g., software engineering environment, electromagnetic) related to system utilization.[MIL-STD 499B] (adapted) ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
environment performance report A summary of the performance of the systems engineering support environment compared to its expected performance. [SE-CMM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
EO See External Output ( Reference : Total Metrics)
EQ See External Inquiry ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Estimate An assessment of the likely quantitative result. Usually applied to project costs and durations and should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., ± x percent). Usually used with a modifier (e.g., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility). Some application areas have specific modifiers that imply particular accuracy ranges (e.g., order-of-magnitude estimate, budget estimate, and definitive estimate in engineering and construction projects). ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Estimate At Completion (EAC) The expected total cost of an activity, a group of activities, or of the project when the defined scope of work has been completed. Most techniques for forecasting EAC include some adjustment of the original cost estimate based on project performance to date. Also shown as "estimated at completion." Often shown as EAC = Actuals-to-date + ETC. See also earned value and estimate to complete. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Estimate To Complete (ETC) The expected additional cost needed to complete an activity, a group of activities, or the project. Most techniques for forecasting ETC include some adjustment to the original estimate based on project performance to date. Also called "estimated to complete." See also earned value and estimate at completion. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Evaluation A systematic determination of the extent to which an entity meets its specified criteria. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
evaluation The use of reviews, inspections, and/or tests, to determine that a software product or service satisfies specified requirements. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
evaluation criteria The criteria against which a selection, decision, or set of decisions will be made. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
evaluation method a procedure describing the action to be performed by the evaluator in order to obtain the result for the specified measurement or verification applied on the specified product components or on the product as a whole. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-5)
evaluation module a package of evaluation technology for a specific software quality characteristic or subcharacteristic ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
evaluation records documented objective evidence of all activities performed and of all results achieved within the evaluation process. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-5)
evaluation report A system follow-up report that describes how the system objectives have been met, identifies the remaining problems and is intended to assist future development. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
evaluation report the document that presents evaluation results and other information relevant to an evaluation. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-5)
evaluation requester the person or organisation that requests an evaluation. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-5)
evaluation technology a generic term which contains techniques, tools, metrics, measures and other technical information, used for evaluation (a generic term for the application of techniques, methods, and other technical information, used for evaluation) ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-2)
evaluation tool an instrument that can be used during evaluation to collect data, to perform interpretation of data or to automate part of the evaluation. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-5)
evaluator the organisation that performs an evaluation. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-5)
event a set of circumstances occurring ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
event a signal of a change in the enterprise indicating that something of significance has happened ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
Event an incident or situation, which occurs in a particular place during a particular interval of time. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
Event (-type) see "Triggering event" Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
Event tree analysis a technique which describes the possible range and sequence of the outcomes which may arise from an initiating event. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
event-driven basis A review that is performed based on the occurrence of an event within the project (e.g., a formal review or the completion of a life cycle stage). (See periodic review for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
event-driven review/activity A review or activity that is performed based on the occurrence of an event within the project (e.g., a formal review or the completion of a life cycle stage). (See periodic review/activity for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Event-on-Node A network diagramming technique in which events are represented by boxes (or nodes) connected by arrows to show the sequence in which the events are to oc-cur. Used in the original Program Evaluation and Review Technique. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
exception report A report that describes differences between requirement or design specifications and the measured properties of a system or system elements. [[Kuhn - TI]] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Exception Report Document that includes only major variations from plan (rather than all variations). ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Exit (-type) a movement of the data attributes found in one data group from inside the software boundary to the user side of the software boundary. An Exit does not read the data it moves. Functionally, an Exit sub-process sends data lying inside the functional process to which it belongs (implicitly inside the software boundary) within reach of the user’s side of the boundary. An Exit is considered to include certain associated data manipulation sub-processes. Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
exit criteria The specific accomplishments or conditions that must be satisfactorily demonstrated before an effort can progress further in the current acquisition phase or transition to the next acquisition phase. Technical exit criteria are used for SEMS events and for acquisition phase milestone reviews. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Expected Monetary Value The product of an event’s probability of occurrence and the gain or loss that will result. For example, if there is a 50 percent probability that it will rain, and rain will result in a $100 loss, the expected monetary value of the rain event is $50 (.5 x $100). ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Expert User See 'User" ITIL Sept 2002
Extent The area of a coordinate plane in the CDIF Coordinate Frame enclosed by points that define a rectangle from the top-left-corner to the bottom-right-corner. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
External attribute A measurable property of an entity which can only be derived with respect to how it relates to its environment. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-3)
External input (EI) An external input (EI) is an elementary process that processes data or control information that comes from outside the application’s boundary. The primary intent of an EI is to maintain one or more ILFs and/or to alter the behavior of the system. See also External inquiry and External output. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
External inquiry (EQ). An external inquiry (EQ) is an elementary process that sends data or control information outside the application boundary. The primary intent of an external inquiry is to present information to a user through the retrieval of data or control information from an ILF or EIF. The processing logic contains no mathematical formulas or calculations, and creates no derived data. No ILF is maintained during the processing, nor is the behavior of the system altered. See also External input and External output. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
External interface file (EIF) An external interface file (EIF) is a user identifiable group of logically related data or control information referenced by the application, but maintained within the boundary of another application. The primary intent of an EIF is to hold data referenced through one or more elementary processes within the boundary of the application counted. This means an EIF counted for an application must be in an ILF in another application. See also Internal logical file. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
external measure an indirect measure of a product derived from measures of the behaviour of the system of which it is a part ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
External output (EO) An external output (EO) is an elementary process that sends data or control information outside the application’s boundary. The primary intent of an external output is to present information to a user through processing logic other than, or in addition to, the retrieval of data or control information. The processing logic must contain at least one mathematical formula or calculation, or create derived data. An external output may also maintain one or more ILFs and/or alter the behavior of the system. See also External input and External inquiry. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
external quality the extent to which a product satisfies stated and implied needs when used under specified conditions ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
external system (interfaces) The system or product interfaces to other systems, communication networks, power supplies, resource connectors, etc., that affect the design of the product under consideration. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)