Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary - L


Labels Labels are used to flag functions within the scope of the Function Point Count so that these functions may be selectively reported as a group. They enable different size profiles of the software to be measured. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Lag A modification of a logical relationship which directs a delay in the successor task. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a 10-day lag, the successor activity cannot start until 10 days after the predecessor has finished. See also lead. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
LAN Local Area Network (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
Late Finish Date (LF) In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may be completed without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date). ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Late life cycle From technical design specification until after implementation. ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Late Start Date (LS) In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may begin without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date). ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Layer the result of the functional partitioning of the software environment such that all included functional processes perform at the same level of abstraction. In a multi-layer software environment, software in one layer exchanges data with software in another layer through their respective functional processes. These interactions are hierarchical in nature; when considered in pairs, one layer is a "client" to the other. A "client" layer uses the functional services provided by other subordinate layers. The Measurement Method defines "peer-to-peer" exchanges as two items of software in the same layer exchanging data. Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
Lead A modification of a logical relationship which allows an acceleration of the successor task. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a 10-day lead, the successor activity can start 10 days before the predecessor has finished. See also lag. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Level of Effort (LOE) Support-type activity (e.g., vendor or customer liaison) that does not readily lend itself to measurement of discrete accomplishment. It is generally characterized by a uniform rate of activity over a specific period of time. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
level of performance the degree to which the needs are satisfied, represented by a specific set of values for the quality characteristics ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:9126-1)
Leveling See resource leveling. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Life cycle A continuous, time-ordered flow of steps that span the lifetime of a system, defined in terms of goals, objectives, outcomes, processes, and other time-dependent characteristics. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
life cycle the finite set of generic phases and steps a system may go through over its entire life history ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
life cycle The system or product evolution initiated by a user need or by a perceived customer need through the disposal of consumer products and their life cycle process products and by-products. (IEEE Std 1220-1994) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
life cycle The scope of the system or product evolution beginning with the identification of a perceived customer need, addressing development, test, manufacturing, operation, support and training activities, continuing through various upgrades or evolutions, until the product and its related processes are disposed of. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Life cycle model A framework containing the processes, activities, and tasks involved in the development, operation, and maintenance of a software product, spanning the life of the system from the definition of its requirements to the termination of its use. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Life Cycle model A framework of processes, activities, and tasks, concerned with the creation, realization, utilization, and evolution of a system, spanning its life from the identification of need through disposal, which also acts as a common reference for communication and understanding. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
life history the actual sequence of steps a system has gone through during its lifetime ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
Lifecycle The stages and activities spanning the life of the system from the definition of its requirements to the termination of its use covering its conception, development, operation, maintenance support and disposal. (from definitions in IEC 61508, ISO 13407 and ISO WD 15288) ( Reference : ISO/TC159/SC4/WG 6:HCLP-PAS)
lifecycle The development, operation and maintenance of a system, spanning the life of the system from the definition of its requirements to the termination of its use. ( Reference : INUSE:UMM)
lifecycle A series of states connected by allowable transitions. The life cycle represents an approval process for Configuration Items, Problem Reports and Change documents. ITIL Sept 2002
life-cycle cost The total investment in product development, test, manufacturing, distribution, operation, refining, and disposal. This investment typically is allocated across the anticipated number of units to be produced over the production life cycle, thus providing a per-unit view of life-cycle cost. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Life-cycle Costing The concept of including acquisition, operating, and disposal costs when evaluating various alternatives. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Likelihood used as a qualitative description of probability and frequency. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
Line Manager (1) The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. (2) A functional manager. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
local customisation an FSM Method that has been modified for local use, such that it might produce different Functional Sizes from those obtained prior to modification ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-1)
location reference indicator following a heading or subheading in an index, showing to which part of the document the heading or subheading refers ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
Logical Relationship A dependency between two project activities, or between a project activity and a milestone. See also precedence relationship. The four possible types of logical relationships are: • Finish-to-start—the "from" activity must finish before the "to" activity can start. • Finish-to-finish—the "from" activity must finish before the "to" activity can finish. • Start-to-start—the "from" activity must start before the "to" activity can start. • Start-to-finish—the "from" activity must start before the "to" activity can finish. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Loop A network path that passes the same node twice. Loops cannot be analyzed using traditional network analysis techniques such as CPM and PERT. Loops are allowed in GERT. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)