Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary - O


object anything perceivable or conceivable EXAMPLE - Products (4.3.5), processes (4.3.1), systems (4.1.1) or people ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Object of interest (-type) an object of interest is identified from the point of view of the Functional User Requirements and may be any physical thing, as well as any conceptual objects or parts of conceptual objects in the world of the user about which the software is required to process and/or store data Reference :Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
objective evidence data supporting the existence or truth of something NOTE - Objective evidence is obtained through observation, measurement, test (4.6.2), or other means. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
objective evidence qualitative or quantitative information, records, or statements of fact pertaining to the characteristics of an item or service or to the existence and implementation of a process element, which is based on observation, measurement, or test and which can be verified ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
offered product product (4.3.5) presented to a customer (4.2.4) external to the offering organization (4.2.1) ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
offeror A contractor who submits a proposal in response to a solicitation package. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Off-the-shelf product Product that is already developed and available, usable either "as is" or with modification. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
OLA Operational Level Agreement (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
Online data entry GSC One of the 14 general system characteristics describing the degree to which data is entered through interactive transactions. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
on-line documentation information accessed by the user through the use of software, but that may not be sensitive to context - See also Help text ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
on-line documentation system or help system ancillary part of a program, or sometimes a separate program, that allows the user to view parts of the on-line documentation or help text on request - See also On-line documentation and Help text ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
Online update GSC One of the 14 general system characteristics describing the degree to which internal logical files are updated online. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Operating environment (software) the set of software operating concurrently on a specified computer system Reference :Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
Operation That period during which a system is used to serve its purpose as intended. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
Operational An operational product is a product which functions in real conditions of operations. ( Reference : SC7:14759)
Operational ease GSC One of the 14 general system characteristics describing the degree to which the application attends to operational aspects, such as, start-up, back-up, and recovery processes. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
operational environment The natural or induced environmental conditions, and user interactions, within which the system is expected to be operated. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
operational requirements The statements that identify the essential capabilities (the process or series of actions performed to effect a purpose or result) that are desired in the system under development. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
operational software The software that is intended to be used and operated in a system when it is delivered to its customer and deployed in its intended environment. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Operations Support Operations Support are responsible for the on-going support and maintenance of the operating environment. Operations Support Centre comprises:Software Support+Hardware Support+Information Centre Support ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Operator An organization that operates the system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Operator A human who is an integral part of the functionality of the system and draws on knowledge and/or procedures to contribute the function. The operator is not a beneficiary of system use. NOTES – 1) The role of operator and the role of user may be vested, simultaneously or sequentially, in the same individual or groups of individuals. 2) The operator ‘integrated with’ knowledge and/or procedures may be viewed as a component of the system. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
operator An organisation that operates the system. [ISO/IEC 12207: 1995] ( Reference : SC7:15939)
opportunity study A study to examine a problem and determine whether or not it requires being solved during the time period under consideration. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
optimizing level (See maturity level.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
optional Information supplied at the discretion of the manufacturer or marketing organization. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:6592)
optional provision expression in the content of a normative document, that takes the form of a statement or a recommendation and is denoted by the word "should" ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-2)
Optional subgroup Optional subgroups are those that the user has the option of using one or none of the subgroups during an elementary process that adds or creates an instance or the data. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Order of Magnitude Estimate See estimate. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
organisation Group of individuals formed to perform some function. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
organisation the structure of an enterprise and the distribution of responsibilities and authorities in the enterprise ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
Organisation Level Certified Function Point Counter A person accredited by an individual organisation to be proficient in Function Point Analysis and authorised to conduct Function Point Counts for projects and applications within the scope of the organisation. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Organisation Type A standard classification for the business within which the organisation as a whole operates. Note: The organisation is that for which the project has been developed. ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Organisational In making use of the definitions in these standards a potential conflict is created over the word ‘organisational’. ISO 15504 uses the term ‘organisational process category’ to describe processes related to the maintenance of infrastructure and competence in the organisation which develops software. This document and ISO 13407 use the term ‘organisational requirements’ to refer to the needs of the client organisation. In this document ‘organisational’ should be taken to refer to the client, not the developer organisation. To avoid confusion the term ‘enterprise’ qv is used when referring to the organisation(s) which are developing a system for use by the client organisation. ( Reference : ISO/TC159/SC4/WG 6:HCLP-PAS)
organisational management Process of organising and managing a group of individuals. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
organisational unit (OU) That part of an organisation that is the subject of measurement. An organisational unit deploys one or more processes that operates within a coherent set of business goals. (adapted from ISO/IEC TR 15504-9:1998) ( Reference : SC7:15939)
organization system (4.1.1) having specific objectives and an organizational structure (4.2.2) EXAMPLE - Company, corporation, firm, enterprise, institution, charity, association or parts or combination thereof. NOTE 1 - An organization can be incorporated, public or private. NOTE 2 – The above definition is valid for the purposes of quality standards. The term "organization" is defined differently in ISO/IEC Guide 2. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Organization a company, firm, enterprise or association, or other legal entity or part thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own function(s) and administration. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
organization The parent organization of the acquisition organization. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
organization A unit within an entity (e.g., company, government agency, or branch of service) within which many projects are managed as a whole. All projects within an organization, at the top of the reporting structure, share a common manager and common policies. [Jones - Loral FS] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
organization A unit within a company or other entity (e.g., government agency or branch of service) within which many projects are managed as a whole. All projects within an organization share a common top-level manager and common policies. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Organization level The management level or levels responsible for managing one or more data processing or information systems organizations. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) A depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate work packages to organizational units. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
organizational control Process of controlling events, products, etc., as part of an organisation’s responsibility. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
Organizational Planning Identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
organizational structure arrangement of responsibilities, authorities and relationships between people NOTE 1 - The scope of an organizational structure may extend to include relevant interfaces external to the organization (4.2.1). NOTE 2 - A formal expression of the organizational structure is often provided in a quality manual (4.7.8) or a quality plan (4.7.9) of a project (4.3.2). ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
organizational unit that part of an organization that is the subject of an assessment. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
organization's business goals The reasons for an organization’s existence. Such goals may include reducing the number of change requests during a system's integration phase, reducing development cycle time, increasing the number of errors found in a system's first or second phase of development, reducing the number of customer-reported defects, etc., when applied to systems engineering activities. [Jones - Loral FS] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
organization's measurement program The set of related elements for addressing an organization's measurement needs. It includes the definition of organization-wide measurements, methods and practices for collecting organizational measurements and analyzing data, and measurement goals for the organization. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
organization's measurement program The set of related elements for addressing an organization's measurement needs. It includes the definition of organization-wide measurements, methods and practices for collecting organizational measurement data, methods and practices for analyzing organizational measurement data, and measurement goals for the organization. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
organization's process assets A collection of entities, maintained by an organization, for use by the projects and others in developing, tailoring, maintaining, and implementing their product development processes. These process assets typically include the organization's standard product development processes, descriptions of the product life cycles approved for use, the guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization's standard product development process, the organization's product development process database, and a library of product development process-related documentation. Any entity that the organization considers useful in performing the activities of process definition and maintenance could be included as a process asset. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
organization's product development process database A database established to collect and make available data on development the product processes and resulting work products particularly as they relate to the organization's standard product development process. The database also contains or references the actual measurement data and related information and data that are needed to understand and interpret the measurement data and assess it for reasonableness and applicability. Examples of process and work product data include estimates of product size, effort, and cost; actual data on product size, effort, and cost; productivity data; peer review coverage and efficiency; and number and severity of defects found in the product. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
organization's software process assets A collection of entities, maintained by an organization, for use by projects in developing, tailoring, maintaining, and implementing their software processes. These software process assets typically include: ? the organization's standard software process, ? descriptions of the software life cycles approved for use, ? the guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization's standard software process, ? the organization's software process database, and ? a library of software process-related documentation. Any entity that the organization considers useful in performing the activities of process definition and maintenance could be included as a process asset. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
organization's software process database A database established to collect and make available data on the software processes and resulting software work products, particularly as they relate to the organization's standard software process. The database contains or references both the actual measurement data and the related information needed to understand the measurement data and assess it for reasonableness and applicability. Examples of process and work product data include estimates of software size, effort, and cost; actual data on software size, effort, and cost; productivity data; peer review coverage and efficiency; and number and severity of defects found in the software code. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
organization's standard product development process The operational definition of the basic process that guides the establishment of a common product development process across the development projects in the organization. It describes the fundamental elements of the product development process that each project is expected to incorporate into its defined process. It also describes the relationships, e.g., ordering and interfaces between these elements of the product development process. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
organization's standard software process The operational definition of the basic process that guides the establishment of a common software process across the software projects in an organization. It describes the fundamental software process elements that each software project is expected to incorporate into its defined software process. It also describes the relationships (e.g., ordering and interfaces) between these software process elements. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
organization's standard systems engineering process The operational definition of the basic process that guides the establishment of a common systems engineering process across the projects in the organization. It describes the fundamental elements of the systems engineering process that each product development project is expected to incorporate into its defined systems engineering process. It also describes the relationships e.g., ordering and interfaces, between these systems engineering process elements. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
orientation An overview or introduction to a topic. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
orientation An overview or introduction to a topic for those overseeing or interfacing with the individuals responsible for performing in the topic area. (See train for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Output data for which the value depends on the operation of the software and which is therefore created or otherwise modified by the software during its operation Reference :Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
Overall Change Control Coordinating changes across the entire project. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)