Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary - Q


Qualification The process of demonstrating whether an entity is capable of fulfilling specified requirements. [See ISO 8402: 1994, 2.13.] ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Qualification requirement A set of criteria or conditions that have to be met in order to qualify a software product as complying with its specifications and being ready for use in its target environment. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Qualification testing Testing, conducted by the developer and witnessed by the acquirer (as appropriate), to demonstrate that a software product meets its specifications and is ready for use in its target environment. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Quality Quality includes: conformity to user expectations, conformity to user requirements, customer satisfaction, reliability, and level of defects present. Context and policy will decide the best definition for a given situation. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
quality the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs ( Reference : TC176:8402)
quality satisfaction of needs and expectations nature of an object (4.1.6) related to needs and expectations NOTE 1 - Nature, in the technical definition means, the complete set of realised quality characteristics and their values. NOTE 2 - Needs and expectations carry their dictionary meanings. NOTE 3 - In the ISO 9000 family of standards the relationship between the nature of an object (4.1.6) and needs and expectations is concerned with satisfying, or the ability to satisfy, needs and expectations. NOTE 4 - The extent to which needs and expectations are met is indicated by qualifiers such as "good", "high" or "poor", "low". ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
quality (1) The degree to which a system or system component meets specified requirements. (2) The degree to which a system or system component meets user needs or expectations [IEEE-STD-610]. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
quality assurance all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy requirements for quality ( Reference : TC176:8402)
quality assurance part of quality management (4.1.15) focused on providing confidence that the relevant quality requirement (4.1.9) will be fulfilled ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Quality assurance All the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system, and demonstrated as needed, to provide adequate confidence that a system will fulfill requirements for quality. [Reference ?] ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
quality assurance A planned and systematic means for assuring management that defined standards, practices, procedures, and methods of the process are applied. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Quality Assurance (QA) (1) The process of evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. (2) The organizational unit that is assigned responsibility for quality assurance. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
quality audit a systematic and independent examination to determine whetther quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives ( Reference : TC176:8402)
quality capability capability (4.1.10) related to quality requirement (4.1.9) ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality characteristic characteristic (4.4.1) related to needs and expectations NOTE - There are various classes of quality characteristic, such as: - physical, e.g. hardness of metal, viscosity of a fluid, texture of paper; - psychological, e.g. aroma, taste, beauty; - ethical, e.g. courtesy of sales assistants, honesty of service personnel; - time oriented, e.g. dependability, reliability, availability, timeliness, safety. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality control the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfil requirements for quality ( Reference : TC176:8402)
quality control part of quality management (4.1.15) focused on fulfilling quality requirements (4.1.9) ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Quality Control (QC) (1) The process of monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. (2) The organizational unit that is assigned responsibility for quality control. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
quality evaluation systematic examination of the extent to which an entity is capable of fulfilling specified requirements ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
quality improvement part of quality management (4.1.15) focused on increasing its effectiveness (4.3.3) and efficiency (4.3.4) NOTE - The term "continual quality improvement " is used when quality improvement is performed on a periodically recurring basis. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality in use the extent to which a product used by specified users meets their needs to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, productivity and satisfaction in specified contexts of use ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
Quality in use The capability of a (software product) to enable specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, productivity, safety and satisfaction in specified contexts of use. (ISO FCD 9126, 1998) ( Reference : ISO/TC159/SC4/WG 6:HCLP-PAS)
quality in use The effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specified users can achieve specified goals in specified environments. ( Reference : INUSE:UMM)
quality loop; quality spiral conceptual model of interacting activities that influence the quality of a product or service in the various stages ranging from the identification of needs to the assessment of whether these needs have been satisfied ( Reference : TC176:8402)
quality management that aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy ( Reference : TC176:8402)
quality management complete set of processes (4.3.1) used in a quality management system (4.1.14) ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality management system system (4.1.1) to establish quality policy (4.1.17) and quality objectives (4.1.18) and to achieve those objectives ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality manual document (4.7.1) describing the quality management system (4.1.14) of an organization (4.2.1) NOTE 1 - Guidance on principles and practice concerning quality manuals can be found in ISO 10013: Guidance on Quality Documents NOTE 2 - A quality manual can vary in detail and format to suit the size and needs of an organization (4.2.1) ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality model the set of characteristics and the relationships between them which provide the basis for specifying quality requirements and evaluating quality ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
quality objective something sought, or aimed at, related to quality (4.1.11) NOTE 1- Quality objectives of an organization (4.2.1) typically derive from the organization's quality policy (4.1.17) and their achievement should be verified. NOTE 2 - Quality objectives typically are specified at different levels and then named with differing terms. NOTE 3 - The specification of quality objectives at an operational level should be quantitative. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality plan a document setting out the specific quality practices, resources and sequence of activities relevant to a particular product, service, contract or project ( Reference : TC176:8402)
quality plan document (4.7.1) describing the quality management system (4.1.14) elements to be applied in a specific case NOTE1 - Specific cases include a particular product (4.3.5), service, project (4.3.2) or contract. NOTE 2 - A quality plan often makes reference to the parts of the quality manual (4.7.8) or documented procedures (4.7.6) applicable to a specific case. NOTE 3 - A quality plan is sometimes called a "quality programme". NOTE 4 - A quality plan must be distinguished from quality planning (4.1.9) which is concerned with establishing the quality management system within which quality plans will play their part. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality planning part of quality management (4.1.15) focused on establishing and interpreting quality policy (4.1.17), quality objectives (4.1.18) and quality requirements (4.1.9) and specifying how these are to be achieved ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Quality Planning Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
quality policy overall intentions and direction of an organization (4.2.1) related to quality (4.1.11) as formally expressed by top management (4.1.4) NOTE1 -The quality policy should be consistent with the overall policy and goals and provide a framework for the setting of quality objectives (4.1.18). NOTE 2 - Quality management principles may form a basis for the establishment of quality policy (4.1.17) (see clause 0.2). ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality record record (4.7.3) relating to quality (4.1.11) NOTE - Quality records may be used to provide demonstration, traceability (4.4.5) and evidence on verification (4.6.3), preventive action (4.5.4) and corrective action (4.5.5). ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
quality requirement requirement (4.1.7) concerning the totality of inherent characteristics of an object (4.1.6) and their values NOTE 1 - The totality of inherent characteristics of an object (4.1.6) and their values is part of the object (4.1.6) itself (e.g. technical characteristics like the diameter of a bolt, the production rate of a machine, the waiting time at a call centre). Characteristics (4.4.1) that are only assigned to the object (4.1.6) (e.g. the price of a product (4.3.5)) are not inherent characteristics (4.4.1). NOTE 2 - If the quality requirement is related to a particular object (4.1.6), e.g. to a process (4.3.1) or to a product (4.3.5), a qualifier might be put before the term quality requirement, e.g. process quality requirement or product quality requirement. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Quality Requirements any requirements relating to software quality as defined in ISO 9126:1991 ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-1)
quality surveillance the continuing monitoring and verification of the status of procedures, methods, conditions, processes, products and services, and analysis of records in relation to stated preferences to ensure that specified requirements for quality are being met ( Reference : TC176:8402)
quality system the organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources for implementing quality management ( Reference : TC176:8402)
quality system review a formal evaluation by top management of the status and adequacy of the quality system in relation to quality policy and new objectives resulting from changed circumstances ( Reference : TC176:8402)
quantitative control Any quantitative or statistically-based technique appropriate to analyze a software process, identify special causes of variations in the performance of the software process, and bring the performance of the software process within well-defined limits. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
quantitative level (See maturity level.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Quantity (base) one of the quantities that, in a system of quantities, are conventionally accepted as functionally independent of one another (from [International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology, 1993])