Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary S : Part 1


safety freedom from unacceptable risk [ISO/IEC Guide 51] NOTE - Safety is one of the characteristics of quality. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
safety The expectation that a system does not, under defined conditions, lead to a state in which human life, health, property, or the environment is endangered. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
scale a set of values with defined properties ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
Scale (reference-value) for particular quantities of a given kind, an ordered set of values, continuous or discrete, defined by convention as a reference for arranging quantities of that kind in order of magnitude (from [International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology, 1993]) ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
Scenario Name Used to uniquely identify a particular count within a phase for a project or for an application. Eg. There may be several counts at planning phase to encompass several ‘what-if’ scenarios each would be identified by a different scenario name. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Schedule See project schedule. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Schedule Compression See duration compression. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Schedule Control Controlling changes to the project schedule. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Schedule Development Analyzing activity sequences, activity durations, and resource requirements to create the project schedule. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Schedule Performance Index (SPI) The ratio of work performed to work scheduled (BCWP/BCWS). See earned value. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Schedule Variance (SV) (1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Scheduled Finish Date (SF) The point in time work was scheduled to finish on an activity. The scheduled finish date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the early finish date and the late finish date. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Scheduled Start Date (SS) The point in time work was scheduled to start on an activity. The scheduled start date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the early start date and the late start date. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
SCI Software Configuration Item (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
SCI types The many types of electronic documents, files, diagrams, models, schema, etc. administered by SCM. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:15846)
SCM Software Configuration Management (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
Scope The sum of the products and services to be provided as a project. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Scope Baseline See baseline. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Scope Change Any change to the project scope. A scope change almost always requires an adjustment to the project cost or schedule. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Scope Change Control Controlling changes to project scope. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Scope creep/gallop Additional functionality that was not specified in the original requirements, but is identified as the scope is being clarified and the functions defined. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Scope Definition Decomposing the major deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to provide better control. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Scope of the FSM the set of Functional User Requirements to be included in a specific FSM instance ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-1)
Scope Planning Developing a written scope statement that includes the project justification, the major deliverables, and the project objectives. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Scope Verification Ensuring that all identified project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
scrap action taken on a nonconforming or defective product (4.3.5) to preclude its original usage NOTE - The concept of scrap applies equally to service even though the term does not. "Discontinuance" may be more suitable to convey the concept in a service situation. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
screen dump representation of what the user will see while using the software ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
S-Curve Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, or other quantities, plotted against time. The name derives from the S-like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in the middle) produced on a project that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
SDE See Standard Development Environment. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Second normal form Result of a normalization process that transforms groups of data so that each non-key attribute depends on the key attribute(s) of the group of data and all parts of the key attribute(s). ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Security The protection of information and data so that unauthorized persons or systems cannot read or modify them and authorized persons or systems are not denied access to them. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
senior manager A management role at a high enough level in an organization that the primary focus is the long-term vitality of the organization, rather than short-term project and contractual concerns and pressures. In general, a senior manager for engineering would have responsibility for multiple projects. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Sensitivity analysis examines how the results of a calculation or model vary as individual assumptions are changed. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
sensitivity analysis A technique for discovering the behavior of a system by changing one input at a time by a small amount and determining the changes in the outputs. A matrix of the quotients of the output changes over the input changes is called a sensitivity matrix. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Service Level Agreement A written agreement between a service provider and Customer(s) that documents agreed service levels for a service. ITIL Sept 2002
Service Request Every Incident not being a failure in the IT Infrastructure. ITIL Sept 2002
Should-Cost Estimates An estimate of the cost of a product or service used to provide an assessment of the reasonableness of a prospective contractor’s proposed cost. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
simulation The use of a data processing system to represent selected behavioral characteristics of a physical or abstract system ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
SIP Service Improvement Program (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
SLA Service Level Agreement (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
Slack Term used in PERT for float. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
SLM Service Level Management (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
Software all or part of the programs, procedures, rules, and associated documentation of an information processing system ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
Software Intellectual creation comprising the programs, rules and associated data which when loaded into the program execution area of a computer, enables that computer to operate. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:15846)
Software An organized set of instructions, data, and interrelationships which when loaded into the program execution area of a computer, enables that computer to function. ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
software acquisition management personnel Those individuals who are trained, educated, or experienced in software acquisition management and who are either assigned to or support the project team in the performance of software acquisition activities. (Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software acquisition plans The collection of plans, both formal and informal, used to express how software acquisition activities will be performed; for example, the Software Acquisition Risk Management Plan or Project Management Plan. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software acquisition process A set of activities, methods, practices, and transformations that people use to acquire software and the associated products. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software acquisition process assets A collection of entities, maintained by an organization, for use by projects in developing, tailoring, maintaining, and implementing their software acquisition processes. Some examples of these software acquisition process assets include: the acquisition organization's standard software acquisition process, descriptions of the software life cycles approved for use, the guidelines and criteria for tailoring the acquisition organization's standard software acquisition process, the organization's software acquisition process database, and a library of software acquisition process-related documentation. Any entity that the organization considers useful in performing the activities of process definition and maintenance could be included as a process asset. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software acquisition process group This group is responsible for the definition, improvement, and maintenance of the acquisition organization's standard software acquisition process and related process assets, including guidelines for all projects to tailor the standard software acquisition process to their specific situations. It coordinates process activities with the software projects and related elements of the organization. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software acquisition process repository A collection of software acquisition process information (e.g., estimated and actual data on software project size, effort, and cost; and project team productivity and quality data) gathered from the software acquisition projects that is maintained by the acquisition organization to support its software acquisition definition and improvement activities. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software acquisition process-related documentation Documents and document fragments that may be of use to future project teams when tailoring the acquisition organization's standard software acquisition process. The examples may cover subjects such as a project's defined software acquisition process, standards, procedures, software acquisition risk management plans, and training materials. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software acquisition project An undertaking that is focused on acquiring the software components and associated documentation of a system. A software project may be part of a project building a hardware/software system. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software acquisition-related group A collection of individuals (both managers and technical staff) representing a software discipline that supports, but is not directly responsible for, software acquisition. Examples of software disciplines include software configuration management and software quality assurance. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software architecture The organizational structure of the software or module [IEEE-STD-610]. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software baseline audit An examination of the structure, contents, and facilities of the software baseline library to verify that baselines conform to the documentation that describes the baselines. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software baseline library The contents of a repository for storing configuration items and the associated records. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software build An operational version of a software system or component that incorporates a specified subset of the capabilities the final software system or component will provide. [IEEE-STD-610] ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software capability evaluation (1) An appraisal by a trained team of professionals, using a method such as the SEI software capability evaluation method, to identify contractors who are qualified to perform the software work, or monitor the state of the software process used on an existing software effort. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
software configuration control board A group responsible for evaluating and approving or disapproving proposed changes to configuration items, and for ensuring implementation of approved changes. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software configuration item (SCI) As "configuration item" in ISO 10007 excluding hardware and services, recursively to identify individual software items of significance. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:15846)
Software Configuration Item (SCI) As 'Configuration Item', excluding hardware and services. ITIL Sept 2002
Software Configuration Management (SCM) The process of applying Configuration Management (see ISO 10007) throughout the software life cycle to ensure the completeness and correctness of SCIs. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:15846)
Software configuration management plan (SCM Plan) Planning information about SCM activities as "configuration management plan" in ISO 10007 ( Reference : SC7/WG8:15846)
software development plan The collection of plans that describe the activities to be performed for the software project. It governs the management of the activities performed by the software engineering group for a software project. It is not limited to the scope of any particular planning standard, such as DOD STD 2167A and IEEE-STD-1058, which may use similar ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)

terminology. [CMM for Software]

software development plan The collection of plans that describe the activities to be performed for the software project. It governs the management of the activities performed by the software engineering group for a software project. It is not limited to the scope of any particular planning standard, such as DOD-STD-2167A and IEEE-STD-1058, which may use similar terminology. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Software Engineering Environment (SEE) The set of automated tools, firmware devices, and hardware necessary to perform the software engineering effort. The automated tools may include but are not limited to compilers, assemblers, linkers, loaders operating systems, debuggers, simulators, emulators, test tools, documentation tools, and database management systems. [IEEE 1348] ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
software engineering group The collection of individuals (both managers and technical staff) who have responsibility for software development and maintenance activities (i.e., requirements analysis, design, code, and test) for a project. Groups performing software-related work, such as the software quality assurance group and the software configuration management group, are not included in the software engineering group. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Maturity The ability of an organization to achieve a controlled and measured process as the foundation for continued improvement (Humphrey). The level of experience of an organization or project with a particular tool, resource, technique, or methodology. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
software engineering personnel Those individuals who are trained, educated, or experienced in software engineering and who are either assigned to or support the project team in the performance of software acquisition activities. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software engineering process group A group of specialists who facilitate the definition, maintenance, and improvement of the software process used by the organization. In the key practices, this group is generically referred to as "the group responsible for the organization's software process activities." ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software engineering staff The software technical people (e.g., analysts, programmers, and engineers), including software task leaders, who perform the software development and maintenance activities for the project, but who are not managers. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Software Environment Software used to support the application, such as operating system, database management system, development tools, compilers, and application software. ITIL Sept 2002
software integration A process of putting together selected software components to provide the set or specified subset of the capabilities the final software system will provide. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software integrity level The integrity level of a software item. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
software library A controlled collection of SCIs designated to keep those with like status and type together and segregated from unlike, to aid in development, operation and maintenance. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:15846)
software library A controlled collection of SCIs designated to keep those with like status and type together and segregated from unlike, to aid in development, operation and maintenance. ITIL Sept 2002
software life cycle The period of time that begins when a software product is conceived and ends when the software is no longer available for use. The software life cycle typically includes a concept phase, requirements phase, design phase, implementation phase, test phase, installation and checkout phase, operation and maintenance phase, and, sometimes, retirement phase [IEEE-STD-610]. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software manager Any manager, at a project or organizational level, who has direct responsibility for software development and/or maintenance. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Software Measurement The quantification of the software production process and its product in order to supply meaningful and timely management information." ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Software Metrics The resulting values obtained from the Software Measurement process, which indicate the performance efficiency, cost effectiveness or quality of the software process or software product. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
software package A complete and documented set of programs supplied to several users for a generic application or function. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
software plans The collection of plans, both formal and informal, used to express how software development and/or maintenance activities will be performed. Examples of plans that could be included: software development plan, software quality assurance plan, software configuration management plan, software test plan, risk management plan, and process improvement plan. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software process the process or set of processes used by an organization or project to plan, manage, execute, monitor, control and improve its software related activities ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
software process assessment An appraisal by a trained team of software professionals to determine the state of an organization's current software process, to determine the high-priority software process-related issues facing an organization, and to obtain the organizational support for software process improvement. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software process description The operational definition of a major software process component identified in the project's defined software process or the organization's standard software process. It documents, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a software process. (See also process description.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software process element A constituent element of a software process description. Each process element covers a well-defined, bounded, closely related set of tasks (e.g., software estimating element, software design element, coding element, and peer review element). The descriptions of the process elements may be templates to be filled in, fragments to be completed, abstractions to be refined, or complete descriptions to be modified or used unmodified. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software process improvement plan A plan, derived from the recommendations of a software process assessment, that identifies the specific actions that will be taken to improve the software process and outlines the plans for implementing those actions. Sometimes referred to as an action plan. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software process improvement proposal A documented suggestion for change to a process or process-related item that will improve software process capability and performance. (See also action proposal.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software process maturity The extent to which a specific process is explicitly defined, managed, measured, controlled, and effective. Maturity implies a potential for growth in capability and indicates both the richness of an organization's software process and the consistency with which it is applied in projects throughout the organization. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software process-related documentation Example documents and document fragments, which are expected to be of use to future projects when they are tailoring the organization's standard software process. The examples may cover subjects such as a project's defined software process, standards, procedures, software development plans, measurement plans, and process training materials. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Software product The set of computer programs, procedures, and possibly associated documentation and data. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
software product the set of computer programs, procedures, and possibly associated documentation and data ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
software product Includes documents, code and services. It may be deliverable to a customer and/or for in-house use. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
software product The complete set, or any of the individual items of the set, of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation and data designated for delivery to a customer or end user. [IEEE-STD-610] (See software work product for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software product developer the person or organisation that manufactures a software product. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-5)
software product evaluation technical operation that consists of producing an assessment of one or more characteristics of a software product according to a specified procedure. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-5)
software project An umbrella term to encompass all processes, activities and tasks needed to complete a software product. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
software project An undertaking requiring concerted effort, which is focused on analyzing, specifying, designing, developing, testing, and/or maintaining the software components and associated documentation of a system. A software project may be part of a project building a hardware/software system. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software project life cycle Model of a software project beginning with the decision to develop, operate and/or maintain a software product and ending when a software project is terminated/retired/closed. Model depicts relationships among major milestones, baselines, reviews and project deliverables spanning the life of a project. Software project life cycle includes project initiation and project termination activities. Software development life cycle activities include: requirements analysis, detailed design, coding and testing, installation and acceptance support. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
Software Project Management (SPM) Procedures, practices, technologies and knowledge (skill, background and wisdom to apply knowledge effectively in practice) providing the planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling necessary to successfully manage a software project. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
software project management (SPM) plan A plan of plans to manage the execution of the appropriate software life cycle processes, resources and products. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
Software Project Management (SPM) team An aggregate of personnel assigned management responsibilities for a software project. SPM team members have individual/joint responsibilities to work in concert. All SPM team members work under the direction of a software PM. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
software Project Manager (PM) Individual with final responsibility for a software product throughout the entire software project life cycle (i.e., concept through closure, as appropriate). Software PMs are responsible for ensuring the appropriate ISO/IEC 12207 Primary Processes (Acquisition, Supply, Development, Operation and Maintenance), Supporting Processes (Documentation, Configuration Management, Quality Assurance, Verification, Validation, Joint Review, Audit and Problem Resolution) and Organizational Life Cycle Processes (Management, Infrastructure, Improvement and Training) are successfully completed, as appropriate. This TR emphasizes the Primary Process ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
software quality assurance (1) A planned and systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a software work product conforms to established technical requirements. (2) A set of activities designed to evaluate the process by which software work products are developed and/or maintained. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software quality goal Quantitative quality objectives defined for a software work product. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software quality management The process of defining quality goals for a software product, establishing plans to achieve these goals, and monitoring and adjusting the software plans, software work products, activities, and quality goals to satisfy the needs and desires of the customer and end users. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software requirement A condition or capability that must be met by software needed by a user to solve a problem or achieve an objective. [IEEE-STD- 610] ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Software service Performance of activities, work, or duties connected with a software product, such as its development, maintenance, and operation. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
software support The process of modifying a software system or component after delivery to correct faults, improve performance or other attributes, or adapt to a changed environment. [IEEE-STD-610] ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Software Test Environment (STE) The facilities, hardware, software, firmware, procedures, and documentation needed to perform qualification, and possibly other, testing of software. Elements may include but are not limited to simulators, code analyzers, test case generators, and path analyzers, and may also include elements used in the software engineering environment. [MIL-HDBK-347] ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
software tool A software product providing automatic support for software life cycle tasks. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:15846)
Software Transition A controlled and coordinated sequence of actions wherein software development passes from the organization performing initial software development to the organization performing software maintenance. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
Software unit A separately compilable piece of code. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)