Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary T


table of contents list of the headings in a document in page number order, with page numbers shown against each heading ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
table of effective pages list showing the latest version number of each page in a loose-leaf paper document; where individual pages are replaced, the table of effective pages shows the old version number for the unaltered pages, and the new version number for the replaced pages ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
tailor To adapt a process or a set of standards or procedures to better match process or product requirements. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
tailored process a defined process developed by tailoring a standard process definition. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-5)
target capability the process capability which the process capability determination sponsor judges will represent an acceptable process risk to the successful implementation of the specified requirement ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
Target Completion Date (TC) An imposed date which constrains or otherwise modifies the network analysis. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
target computer The computer on which delivered software is intended to operate. (See host computer for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Target Finish Date (TF) The date work is planned (targeted) to finish on an activity. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Target Start Date (TS) The date work is planned (targeted) to start on an activity. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Task Activities required to achieve a goal. (ISO 9241 part 11) ( Reference : ISO/TC159/SC4/WG 6:HCLP-PAS)
Task Well-defined unit of work in the process that provides management with visible checkpoints into the status of the project. Tasks have readiness criteria and completion criteria. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Task (1) A sequence of instructions treated as a basic unit of work. [IEEE-STD- 610] (2) A well-defined unit of work in the software process that provides management with a visible checkpoint into the status of the project. Tasks have readiness criteria (preconditions) and completion criteria (postconditions). (See activity for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
task kick-off meeting A meeting held at the beginning of a task of a project for the purpose of preparing the individuals involved to perform the activities of that task effectively. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
task leader A team leader for a specific task who has technical responsibility and provides the technical direction to the staff working on that task (including him/herself). [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
taxonomy A scheme that partitions a body of knowledge and defines the relationships among the pieces. ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
team A collection of people, drawn from diverse, but related, groups, to perform a well-defined function for an organization or a project. Team members may have other primary responsibilities. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Team Count A team function point count involves more than one counter, simultaneously counting the same application/project. Such counts require special procedures to ensure that the finished FPA product is consistent across all modules/components counted. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Team Development Developing individual and group skills to enhance project performance. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Team Members See project team members. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
team selection plan document specifying the qualifications, experience and training needs of documentation development staff ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
technical effort The total engineering, test, manufacturing, and specialty engineering effort associated with the development of a product offering which encompasses all of the system, equipment, facilities, etc., necessary for the Enterprise to develop, produce, distribute, operate, test, support, train, and dispose of the product. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
technical management plan A plan that describes how the technical effort will be managed and conducted. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
technical objectives The "target" values for the development effort when insufficient data is available for stating binding technical requirements. Also can be used to define capabilities beyond established technical requirements when opportunities have been identified for substantial increases in effectiveness, decreases in cost. or additional flexibility. Includes cost, schedule, and performance attributes deemed important. MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
technical parameters A selected subset of the system's technical metrics tracked in TPM. Critical technical parameters are identified from risk analyses and contract specification or incentivization, and are designated by management. Example of Technical Parameters include: a. Specification Requirements. b. Metrics associated with technical objectives and other key decision metrics used to guide and control progressive development. c. Design to cost requirements. d. Parameters identified in the acquisition program baseline or user requirements documentation. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Technical Requirements requirements relating to the technology and environment, for the development, maintenance, support and execution of the software ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-1)
technical requirements Those requirements that describe what the product must do. Examples of technical requirements include functions, performance, and interface requirements. [CMM for Software] (adapted) ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
technical reviews A series of systems engineering activities by which the technical progress of a program is assessed relative to its technical or contractual requirements. Conducted at logical transition points in the development effort to reduce risk by identifying and correcting problems/issues resulting from the work completed before the program is disrupted or delayed. Provide a method for the contractor and Government to determine that the development of a system and/or configuration item and its documentation have met contract requirements. Includes incremental reviews (functional, subsystem, and interim system) and major system level technical reviews. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
technical software requirements The system requirements allocated to software. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
technique The application of accumulated technical or management skills and methods in the creation of a product or performing a service. (IEEE Std 1002) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
techniques methods and skills required to carry out a specific task ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-2)
technology The application of science and/or engineering in accomplishing a particular result. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
technology The tools and methods that can be applied by people in accomplishing some particular result. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Terminal Symbol A part of the hierarchical definition of a syntax that is not further decomposed in the hierarchy. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Test Integration testing / user acceptance ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
test functional examination of one or more characteristics of an item by subjecting the item to a set of conditions or operating actions NOTE 1 - Typical test conditions are physical, chemical or environmental. NOTE 2 - This concept has wide application to the field of quality management (4.1.15). NOTE 3 – The above definition is valid for the purposes of quality standards. The term ‘test’ is defined differently in ISO/IEC Guide 2. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
test An activity in which a system or component is executed under specified conditions, the results are observed or recorded, and an evaluation is made of some aspect of the system or component. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
test case a documented instruction for the tester that specifies how a function or a combination of functions shall or should be tested ( Reference : SC7:12119)
Test coverage The extent to which the test cases test the requirements for the system or software product. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
test plan A plan describing the schedule, resources, and approach to verify the compliance of a system or its elements with the requirements. [Minnich - Hughes] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
test plan; system test and evaluation plan A plan that establishes detailed requirements, criteria, general methodology, responsibilities, and general planning for test and evaluation of a system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
test report Report that describes the compliance of test efforts with test plans, and the behavior and faults of the objects under test. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Testability The extent to which an objective and feasible test can be designed to determine whether a requirement is met. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
testability The degree to which a requirement is stated in terms that permit establishment of test criteria and performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
testing The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is, bugs) and to evaluate the features of the software item. (IEEE Std 829-1983) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
Third normal form Result of a normalization process that transforms groups of data so that each non-key attribute does not depend on any other non-key attribute. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
threat A state of the system or system environment which can lead to adverse effect in one or more given risk dimensions. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
threshold The limiting acceptable value of a technical parameter, usually a contractual performance requirement [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
throwclear foldout whose print area is such that all of the material on the page can be viewed with the book shut, so that it can be viewed at all times while looking at any of the preceding pages of the book ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
Time Recording Methods (ISBSG) The following methods of collecting WORK EFFORT are believed to be the most common. Method-A: Staff Hours (Recorded)The daily recording of all of the WORK EFFORT expended by each person on Project related tasks e.g.a person who works on a specific project from 8 am until 5 pm with a 1 hour lunch break will record 8 hours of WORK EFFORT. Method-B:Staff Hours (Derived) It is possible to derive the WORK EFFORT where it has not been collected on an daily basis as in Method-A. It may have only been recorded in weeks, months or years.The suggested method for deriving the WORK EFFORT is outlined in the ISBSG Paper No.2 ("Derivation of Project Delivery Rate"). Method-C:Productive Time Only (Recorded)The daily recording of only the "productive" effort (including overtime) expended by a person on project related tasks e.g.using the same example as used in Method-A above, when the "non-productive" tasks have been removed (coffee, liaise with other teams, administration, read magazine, etc.) only 5.5 hours may be recorde ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Time-Scaled Network Diagram Any project network diagram drawn in such a way that the positioning and length of the activity represents its duration. Essentially, it is a bar chart that includes network logic. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
tolerance band Management alert limits placed on each side of the planned profile to indicate the envelope or degree of variation allowed. The tolerance band represents the projected level of estimating error. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
top management person or group of people conducting or controlling an organisation (4.2.1) at the highest level ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
top-down Pertaining to a method or procedure that starts at the highest level of abstraction and proceeds towards the lowest level. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
Topology The topology of a network is defined as that information which remains invariant under bending and stretching transformations. This information can not be captured by providing coordinate locations. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
TOR Terms Of Reference (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
Total degree of influence (TDI) The sum of the degrees of influence for the fourteen GSCs. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Total Float (TF) See float. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
total quality management quality management (4.1.15) of an organization (4.2.1) comprising the entire organization (4.2.1) NOTE 1 - Total quality management should be based on the participation of all members of an organization (4.2.1) and aiming at long-term success through benefits to all interested parties (4.2.5) of the organization (4.2.1). NOTE 2 - An organization (4.2.1) should have an appropriate philosophy and culture to operate total quality management successfully. NOTE 3 - Total quality management affects all technical and all non-technical activities carried out in an organization (4.2.1). NOTE 4 - Short form: TQM. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Total Quality Management (TQM) A common approach to implementing a quality improvement program within an organization. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
TP Transaction Processing (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
traceability ability to trace the history, application or location of an object (4.1.6) EXAMPLE - a) In a product (4.3.5) sense, it may relate to: the origin of materials and parts; the product processing history; the distribution and location of the product (4.3.5) after delivery. b) In a calibration (4.6.6) sense, it relates measuring equipment to national or international standards, primary standards, basic physical constants or properties, or reference materials. c) In a data-collection sense, it relates calculations and data generated throughout the quality loop sometimes back to the quality requirements (4.1.9) for an object (4.1.6). NOTE - All aspects of traceability requirements (4.1.7), if any, should be clearly specified, for example, in terms of periods of time, point of origin or identification. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
traceability The degree to which a relationship can be established between two or more products of the development process, especially products having a predecessor-successor or master-subordinate relationship to one another. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
traceability matrix a matrix that records the relationship between two or more products of the development process; for example, a matrix that records the relationship between the requirements and the design of a given component. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Trade-off Decision making actions that select from various requirements and alternative solutions on the basis of net benefit to the stakeholders. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
train To make proficient with specialized instruction and practice. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
training Project team training. (See required training for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
training group The collection of individuals (both managers and staff) who are responsible for coordinating and arranging the training activities for an organization. This group typically prepares and conducts most of the training courses and coordinates use of other training vehicles. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
training materials Developed or acquired materials that are or will be used in building the needed skills among the organization’s employees. These may include books, manuals, computer hardware, computer software, video tapes, audio tapes, etc. [SE-CMM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
training program The set of related elements that focuses on addressing an organization's training needs. It includes an organization's training plan, training materials, development of training, conduct of training, training facilities, evaluation of training, and maintenance of training records. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
training program The set of related elements that focus on addressing an organization's training needs. It includes an organization's training plan, training materials, development of training, conduct of training, training facilities, evaluation of training, and maintenance of training records. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
training waiver A written approval exempting an individual from training that has been designated as required for a specific role. The exemption is granted because it has been objectively determined that the individual already possesses the needed skills to perform the role. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Transaction rate GSC One of the 14 general system characteristics describing the degree to which the rate of business transactions influenced the development of the application. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Transactional functions The functionality provided to the user to process data by an application. Transactional functions are defined as external inputs, external outputs, and external inquiries. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Transactions These correspond to ‘elementary processes’ in IFPUG terminology. They are the lowest level on a functional hierarchy and represent a discrete event in the users business processes. They complete a unit of work and leave the business in a consistent state. Eg. Change Customer Details. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Transfer file A file containing data to be interchanged. It is made up of a header, and a number of components. Components contain either data, or data definition data. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15475-1)
transition The process of transferring responsibility for the acquired software products from the project manager to the software support organization. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Trend A time analysis showing repeated occurrences of a particular measure or metric. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
trend analysis An analysis technique that relies on a collection of history for making future projections. [SE-CMM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Triggering event (-type) a triggering event occurs outside the boundary of the measured software and initiates one or more functional processes. Clock and timing events can be triggering events. Since each identified layer is separated by a boundary, triggering events can occur in one layer and initiate functional processes belonging to another layer Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1