Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary - C : Part 2

constraint for a system, restrictions and limitations that can come from inside or outside the system under consideration; for a model, a limitation or restriction on the model imposed by the modeler for some purpose or in response to some system constraint. ( Reference : TC184/SC5:14258)
constraint a restriction or limitation on a system that can come from inside or outside the system under consideration ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
constructed capability a capability constructed from elements of organizational units or of different organizations, that are assembled for the purposes of achieving a particular specified requirement ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
Context of use The users, tasks, equipment (hardware, software and materials), and the physical and social environments in which a system is used. (ISO 9241 part 11) ( Reference : ISO/TC159/SC4/WG 6:HCLP-PAS)
contingency factor An adjustment (increase) of a size, cost, or schedule plan to account for likely underestimates of these parameters due to incomplete specification, inexperience in estimating the application domain, etc. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Contingency Planning The development of a management plan that identifies alternative strategies to be used to ensure project success if specified risk events occur. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Contingency Reserve A separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which may be planned for only in part (sometimes called "known unknowns"). For example, rework is certain, the amount of rework is not. Contingency reserves may involve cost, schedule, or both. Contingency reserves are intended to reduce the impact of missing cost or schedule objectives. Contingency reserves are normally included in the project’s cost and schedule baselines. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Contract A binding agreement between two parties, especially enforceable by law, or a similar internal agreement wholly within an organization, for the supply of software service or for the supply, development, production, operation, or maintenance of a software product. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Contract A contract is a mutually binding agreement which obligates the seller to provide the specified product and obligates the buyer to pay for it. Contracts generally fall into one of three broad categories:• Fixed price or lump sum contracts—this category of contract involves a fixed total price for a well-defined product. Fixed price contracts may also include incentives for meeting or exceeding selected project objectives such as schedule targets. • Cost reimbursable contracts—this category of contract involves payment (re-imbursement) to the contractor for its actual costs. Costs are usually classified as direct costs (costs incurred directly by the project, such as wages for members of the project team) and indirect costs (costs allocated to the project by the performing organization as a cost of doing business, such as salaries for corporate executives). Indirect costs are usually calculated as a percentage of direct costs. Cost reimbursable contracts often include incentives for meeting or exceeding select ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Contract Administration Managing the relationship with the seller. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Contract Close-out Completion and settlement of the contract, including resolution of all outstanding items. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
contract integrity The adherence and compliance to contractual and legal policies, regulations, and other guidance. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
contract terms and conditions The stated legal, financial, and administrative aspects of a contract. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
contractor The entity delivering the product or performing the service being acquired, even if that entity is part of the acquiring organization. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Contribution The function type's (ILF, EIF, EI, EO, EQ) contribution to the unadjusted function point count. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Control The process of comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, evaluating possible alternatives, and taking appropriate corrective action as needed. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Control Charts Control charts are a graphic display of the results, over time and against established control limits, of a process. They are used to determine if the process is "in control" or in need of adjustment. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Control information. Control Information is data that influences an elementary process of the application being counted. It specifies what, when, or how data is to be processed. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Conversion Those activities associated with mapping data or programs from one format to another, for example, converting an application from COBOL to VS COBOL II. The assumption is that functionality remains the same. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Conversion functionality For a development project, functions provided to convert data and/or provide other user-specified conversion requirements, such as special conversion reports. For an enhancement project, functions delivered because of any conversion functionality required by the user. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Convertibility The ability to convert the Functional Size obtained by using one FSM Method to an accurate representation of the Functional Size that would be obtained by using another method ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-3)
Corporate executive level The management level responsible for the enterprise, including the Board of Directors. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
corrective action action taken to eliminate the cause of an existing nonconformity (4.5.2) or other undesirable situation NOTE 1 - Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action (4.5.4) is taken to prevent occurrence. NOTE 2 - There is a distinction between "correction" and "corrective action". "Correction" refers to repair (4.5.9), rework (4.5.10) or adjustment and relates to the disposition of an existing nonconforming product. "Corrective action" relates to the elimination of the cause of a nonconforming product. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Corrective Action Changes made to bring expected future performance of the project into line with the plan. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
corrective action recommendations Proposed method(s) designed to correct a specific defect. [Jones - IBM]. ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
corrective actions Planned activities initiated to correct a defect. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Corrective Maintenance The reactive modification of a software product performed after delivery to correct discovered problems. The modification repairs code to satisfy requirements. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
COSMIC Common Software Measurement International Consortium Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
Cost of activities, both direct and indirect, involving any negative impact, including money, time, labour, disruption, goodwill, political and intangible losses. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
Cost Budgeting Allocating the cost estimates to individual project components. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Cost Control Controlling changes to the project budget. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Cost Estimating Estimating the cost of the resources needed to complete project activities. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Cost of Quality The costs incurred to ensure quality. The cost of quality includes quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and rework. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Cost Performance Index (CPI) The ratio of budgeted costs to actual costs (BCWP/ACWP). CPI is often used to predict the magnitude of a possible cost overrun using the following formula: original cost estimate/CPI = projected cost at completion. See also earned value. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) Contract A type of contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee). ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) Contract A type of contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
cost requirements The financial thresholds and objectives expressed in terms of design-to-cost targets, research, development, test & evaluation (RDT&E) operating and support costs, and flyaway, weapon system, unit procurement, program acquisition, and life-cycle costs. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Cost Variance (CV) (1) Any difference between the estimated cost of an activity and the actual cost of that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less ACWP. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Count Description Describes the background of the count, when it was done by whom, resources used and function point counting standards employed. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Count Review The process of validating Function Point Counts performed by Certified Function Point Counters. Count review procedures are defined in the Total Metrics - Function Point Count Review and Validation Procedure. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Counting Practices Committee (CPC) Counting Practices Committee (CPC). The working committee that maintains the IFPUG Counting Practices Manual. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Counting rule Conditions and procedures under which the measurement value is obtained. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-3)
Counting Scope The counting scope defines the functionality which will be included in a particular function point count. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Crashing Taking action to decrease the total project duration after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum duration compression for the least cost. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Critical Activity Any activity on a critical path. Most commonly determined by using the critical path method. Although some activities are "critical" in the dictionary sense with-out being on the critical path, this meaning is seldom used in the project context. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
critical components Components that are indispensable. [Jones - Loral FS] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
critical computer resource The parameters of the computing resources deemed to be a source of risk to the project because the potential need for those resources may exceed the amount that is available. Examples include target computer memory and host computer disk space. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
critical design review A review conducted to verify that the detailed design of one or more configuration items satisfy specified requirements; to establish the compatibility among the configuration items and other risk areas for each configuration item; and, as applicable, to assess the results of producibility analyses, review preliminary hardware product specification, evaluate preliminary test planning, and evaluate the adequacy of preliminary operation and support documents. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
critical path A series of dependent tasks for a project that must be completed as planned to keep the entire project on schedule. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Critical Path In a project network diagram, the series of activities which determines the earliest completion of the project. The critical path will generally change from time to time as activities are completed ahead of or behind schedule. Although normally calculated for the entire project, the critical path can also be determined for a mile-stone or subproject. The critical path is usually defined as those activities with float less than or equal to a specified value, often zero. See critical path method. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Critical Path Method (CPM) A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing which sequence of activities (which path) has the least amount of scheduling flexibility (the least amount of float). Early dates are calculated by means of a forward pass using a specified start date. Late dates are calculated by means of a backward pass starting from a specified completion date (usually the forward pass’s calculated project early finish date). ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
current estimate The value of a technical parameter that is predicted to be achieved with existing resources by the end of the contract. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Current Finish Date The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will be completed. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Current Start Date The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will begin. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
customer recipient of a product (4.3.5) EXAMPLE - Consumer, end user, retailer, beneficiary and purchaser. NOTE - The customer (4.2.4) can be internal or external to the organization (4.2.1). ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
customer recipient of a product provided by the supplier ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
customer Individual/organization using a project’s product. There may be multiple layers (or a diversity) of customers. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
customer Individual(s) or organizational entity(ies) for whom the product or service is rendered; also one who uses the product or service. [Minnich - Hughes] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
customer The individual or organization that is responsible for accepting the product and authorizing payment to the developing organization. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
customer Recipient of a service; usually the Customer management has responsibility for the cost of the service, either directly through charging or indirectly in terms of demonstrable business need. ITIL Sept 2002
customer feedback Information provided by the customer indicating the degree of satisfaction with the product or service. [Minnich - Hughes] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
customer needs What a customer believes that he needs to perform some activity of interest to him. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
customer satisfaction An indicator of the degree to which a delivered product or service meets or exceeds the customer’s expectations. [SPICE BPG 0.06] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
cut-off date date after which changes to the software are reflected in the next, rather than the current, issue of the documentation ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
cutover The transfer of functions of a system to its successor at a given moment. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)