Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary - M

Maintainability Plan A document setting out the specific maintainibility practices, resources and sequence of activities relevant to software . The developer prepares the Maintainibility Plan. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
Maintained. The term maintained is the ability to modify data through an elementary process. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Maintainer An organization that performs maintenance activities. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Maintenance The effort to keep an application performing according to its specifications, generally without changing its functionality (or function point count). Maintenance includes repair, minor enhancement, conversion, user support and preventive maintenance activities. Activities include defect removal (see repair), hardware or software upgrades (see conversion), optimization or quality improvement (see preventive maintenance), and user support. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
maintenance that part of system maintenance which is concerned with modifying a software package ( Reference : SC7:12119)
maintenance Modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes, or to adapt the product to a modified environment. ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
maintenance The process of modifying a system or component after delivery to correct faults, improve performance or other attributes, or adapt to a changed environment. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Maintenance (support) rate The productivity measure for maintaining an application. It is expressed as the Work Effort by category of maintenance divided by 1000 Application Function Points in a period of time. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Maintenance Enhancement A maintenance enhancement is a software change which is not a software correction. There are two types of software enhancements, adaptive and perfective. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
Maintenance Plan A document setting out the specific maintenance practices, resources, and sequence of activities relevant to maintaining a software product . The maintainer prepares the Maintenance Plan. The Plan should be activated once a product transitions to the maintenance phase. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
Maintenance Process The Maintenance Process contains the activities and tasks of the maintainer. This process is activated when the software product undergoes modifications to code and associated documentation due to a problem or the need for improvement adaptation. The objective is to modify existing software product preserving its integrity. This process includes the migration and retirement of the software product. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
Maintenance Programme The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources used for implementing the maintenance plan. [The term "programme" is synonymous with "infrastructure."] ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
managed and controlled The process of identifying and defining software work products that are not part of a baseline and, therefore, are not placed under configuration management but that must be controlled for the project to proceed in a disciplined manner. "Managed and controlled" implies that the version of the work product in use at a given time (past or present) is known (i.e., version control), and changes are incorporated in a controlled manner (i.e., change control). ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
management co-ordinated activities to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives NOTE 1- The objectives should be measurable, challenging and achievable. NOTE 2 - The term "management" referring to people, i.e. person or group of people with authority and responsibility for the conduct and control of an organization (4.2.1), should not be used without some form of qualifier. For example, "management shall…" is deprecated whereas "top management (4.1.4) shall….." is acceptable. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
management practice a management activity or task that addresses the implementation or institutionalization of a specific process attribute ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-5)
Management Reserve A separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which are impossible to predict (sometimes called "unknown unknowns"). Management reserves may involve cost or schedule. Management reserves are intended to reduce the risk of missing cost or schedule objectives. Use of management reserve requires a change to the project’s cost baseline. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
management system system (4.1.1) to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives NOTE – A management system of an organization (4.2.1) may include a quality management system (4.1.14), a financial management system and an environmental management system. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
manager A person who provides technical and administrative direction and control to individuals performing tasks or activities within the manager's area of responsibility. The traditional functions of a manager include planning, allocating resources, organizing, directing, and controlling work within an area of responsibility. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
mandatory provision expression in the content of a normative document, that takes the form of an instruction or a requirement and is denoted by the word "shall" ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-2)
Mandatory subgroup One of the two types of subgroups for record element types (RETs). Mandatory subgroups mean the user must use one of the subgroups during an elementary process that creates an instance of the data. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
market survey Investigation that focuses on a set of potential customers to help identify the customer requirements for a product or service. [Jones - Loral FS] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
master plan the documentation of the major engineering and operations planning effort carried out prior to any large enterprise integration or other systems engineering project ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
Master Schedule A summary-level schedule which identifies the major activities and key milestones. See also milestone schedule. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Matrix Organization Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to the project. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
maturity level A well-defined evolutionary plateau toward achieving a mature software process. The five maturity levels in the SEI Capability Maturity Model are initial, repeatable, defined, managed, and optimizing. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
maturity level A well-defined evolutionary plateau toward achieving a mature software process. The five maturity levels in the SEI's Capability Maturity Model are: ? initial - The software process is characterized as ad hoc, and occasionally even chaotic. Few processes are defined, and success depends on individual effort. ? repeatable - Basic project management processes are established to track cost, schedule, and functionality. The necessary process discipline is in place to repeat earlier successes on projects with similar applications. ? defined -The software process for both management and engineering activities is documented, standardized, and integrated into a standard software process for the organization. All projects use an approved, tailored version of the organization's standard software process for developing and maintaining software. ? managed - Detailed measures of the software process and product quality are collected. Both the software process and products are quantitatively understood and controlled. ? op ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
maturity questionnaire A set of questions about the software process that sample the key practices in each key process area of the CMM. The maturity questionnaire is used as a springboard to appraise the capability of an organization or project to execute a software process reliably. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Maximum Team Size The maximum team size is the maximum number of people during each component of the work breakdown who are simultaneously assigned to work full-time on the project for at least one elapsed month.
MBNQA Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
Measure As a noun, a number that assigns relative value. Some examples may include volume, height, function points, or work effort. As a verb, to ascertain or appraise by comparing to a standard. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
measure A quantitative assessment of the degree to which a software product or process possesses a given attribute. (IEEE Std 982-1988) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
measure To ascertain the characteristics or features (extent, dimension, quantity, capacity, and capability) of something, especially by comparing with a standard. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
measure A unit of measurement such as source lines of code or document pages of design. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
measure (noun) the number or category assigned to an attribute of an entity by making a measurement ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
measure (verb) make a measurement ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
Measurement Assigning relative value. Usually, in the improvement process, measures gained from this activity are combined to form metrics. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
measurement the use of a metric to assign a value (which may be a number or category) from a scale to an attribute of an entity ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
measurement The dimension, capacity, quantity, or amount of something (e.g., 300 source lines of code or seven document pages of design). ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
measurement A raw data item collected on a process. The basic quantitative value that describes the magnitude of an element of the process. [IBM Fed Systems Co] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Measurement method a logical sequence of operations, described generically, used in the performance of measurements (from [International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology, 1993]) Reference :Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
Measurement procedure a set of operations, described specifically, used in the performance of particular measurements according to a given method (from [International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology, 1993]) Reference :Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
Measurement process the process of establishing, planning, performing and evaluating software measurement within an overall project or organisational measurement structure (from [ISO/IEC 15939 Information technology – Software Measurement process]) Reference :Reference :COSMIC-FFP MM Version 2.1
measurement reliability The extent to which there exists random measurement error in a subjective measurement procedure. ( Reference : SC7:15939)
measurement user An individual or organisation that uses the results of measurement. ( Reference : SC7:15939)
measures of effectiveness The figures-of-merit which provide a quantitative means for comparing alternative system solutions. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Media/Medium A channel of communication or information, for example, a report issued on paper or in microfiche. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Meta- According to Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary: more comprehensive: transcending - used with the name of a discipline to designate a new but related discipline designed to deal critically with the original one. Meta- is used in CDIF generally as a prefix to a concept to imply definition information about the concept. Specifically, used to designate the location of an object in the three model layers. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Meta-attribute A definition of a characteristic of a meta-entity or meta-relationship. Instances of a meta-attribute occur in a model as data values. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Meta-entity A definition of a type of data object that occurs in CDIF models. Specifically, a meta-entity represents a set of zero or more meta-attributes, stored together to represent a thing, event or concept that has instances in a model. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Meta-meta-attribute A definition of a characteristic of a meta-meta-entity or meta-meta-relationship. Instances of a meta-meta-attribute occur in a meta-model as meta-data values. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Meta-meta-entity A definition of the behavior and structure of meta-entities, meta-relationships, meta-attributes, or subject areas (i.e., a definition of the meta-object definitions used to describe information in models). ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Meta-meta-relationship A definition of a type of data object that occurs in CDIF meta-models. Specifically, a meta-meta-relationship represents the definition of a relationship between instances of meta-meta-entities. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Meta-model A meta-model contains detailed definitions of the meta-entities, meta-relationships and meta-attributes whose instances represent an actual CDIF transfer. The CDIF Semantic Meta-model (as defined in the set of standards that comprise the CDIF Family of Standards) is a definition of all of the types of information that can be transferred in a CDIF Transfer without using the CDIF extensibility mechanism. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Meta-object A meta-object is a generic term for meta-entities and meta-relationships ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Meta-relationship A definition of a type of data object that occurs in CDIF models. Specifically, a meta-relationship represents the definition of a relationship between meta-entities that has instances in a model. A meta-relationship may also define a set of zero or more meta-attributes, stored together to represent characteristics of a relationship between meta-entities. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
method A reasonably complete set of rules and criteria that establish a precise and repeatable way of performing a task to provide a desired result. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
methodology a set of instructions (provided through text, computer programs, tools, etc.) that is a step-by-step aid to the user ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
methodology A collection of methods, procedures, and standards that defines an integrated synthesis of engineering approaches to the development of a product. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Metric There is no single universal definition of a metric. In the context of this document, a metric is a combination of two or more measures or attributes. Examples include (1) defect density (defects per function point) and (2) delivery rates (function points per hour). ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
metric the defined measurement method and the measurement scale ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
metric A quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, component, or process possess a given attribute. (IEEE Std 610.12) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
metric A composite of two or more measurements resulting in a value that defines a characteristic of the process. [IBM Fed Systems Co] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
metrics analyst An individual or organisation that is responsible for the planning, performance, evaluation, and improvement of measurement. ( Reference : SC7:15939)
metrics librarian An individual or organisation that is responsible for managing the metrics database(s). ( Reference : SC7:15939)
Metrics Repository A storage facility for base measures and derived software metrics. Summary function point count results only are recorded within the Metrics Repository. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Metrics Support Within the context of the Function Point Implementation Project, Metrics Support staff are responsible for installing the FPA Repository software on LANs at the different development locations. They are also responsible for performing regular backup activities for the LAN directories on which the FPA databases reside. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Mid life cycle From requirements definition to completion of the technical design. ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Milestone Project milestones are project specific events that are defined as part of the project planning process. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
milestone A scheduled event for which some project member or manager is held accountable and at which progress toward a defined goal is measured. [Jones - Loral FS] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Milestone A significant event in the project, usually completion of a major deliverable. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Milestone Schedule A summary-level schedule which identifies the major milestones. See also master schedule. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
mission that activity in which an enterprise engages to fulfil the customer product or service function for which it was established; the mechanism by which an enterprise achieves its goals and objectives ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
mitigating function A mitigating function is a function that, if provided successfully, will prevent an initiating event from becoming a specified threat. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
Mitigation Taking steps to lessen risk by lowering the probability of a risk event’s occurrence or reducing its effect should it occur. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Model A specific collection of software engineering data. This is called a model because it usually represents a model of a software system under development. A collection of instances of meta-objects. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
model (when used generally) a description of an information system used in system development ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-3)
model a representation of something else expressed in mathematics, symbols, or words ( Reference : TC184/SC5:14258)
model an abstract representation of reality in any form (including mathematical, physical, symbolic, graphical, or descriptive form) to present a certain aspect of that reality for answering the questions studied ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
Model Layers The different layers of definition (or abstraction) used in defining the CDIF Family of Standards. The four model layers in CDIF are: user data, model, meta-model, meta-meta-model. Any given model layer provides an accurate and complete definition of all the instances that may occur one layer below the given layer. For example, the meta-meta-model provides a set of definitions that are used to construct and understand the meta-model; the meta-model provides a set of definitions that are used To construct and understand a model. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Modern Project Management (MPM) A term used to distinguish the current broad range of project management (scope, cost, time, quality, risk, etc.) from narrower, traditional use that focused on cost and time. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
modification The act of changing a system or component after delivery to improve performance or some other attribute, or to adapt the system or component to function in a changed environment. [Jones - Loral FS] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Modification Request (MR) A generic term used to identify proposed changes to a software product that is being maintained. The MR may later be classified as a correction or enhancement and categorized as corrective, adaptive, or perfective maintenance. MRs are also referred to as change requests. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14764)
Monitoring An examination of the status of the activities of a supplier and of their results by the acquirer or a third party. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Monitoring The capture, analysis, and reporting of project performance, usually as compared to plan. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Monte Carlo Analysis A schedule risk assessment technique that performs a project simulation many times in order to calculate a distribution of likely results. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
Multiple sites GSC One of the 14 general system characteristics describing the degree to which the application has been developed for multiple locations and user organizations. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)