Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary - R

Random error A component of the error of measurement which, in the course of a number of measurement of the same FUR, varies in an unpredictable way. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-3)
rating the action of mapping the measured value to the appropriate rating level. Used to determine the rating level associated with the software for a specific quality characteristic ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
rating level a scale point on an ordinal scale which is used to categorise a measurement scale ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-1)
Ratio In the context of this document, ratio is defined as the result of dividing one measured quantity by another. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Read (-type) a Read refers to data attributes found in one data group. Functionally, a Read sub-process brings data from storage, within reach of the functional process to which it belongs. A Read is considered to include certain associated data manipulation sub-processes.
record document (4.7.1) providing objective evidence (4.7.2) NOTE - Records (4.7.3) form a special group of document. Some requirements relating to documents apply to all of them, such as the need to be legible, otherwise records are subject to their own special set of requirements. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Record element type (RET) A record element type (RET) is a user recognizable subgroup of data elements within an ILF or EIF. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
records of training and experience A mapping of an organization's personnel to the training and experience that each individual has completed or accomplished. ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
RECUP Acronym for Repair/Enhancement/ Conversion/User support/Prevention. See also Maintenance (support) rate. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Re-development Project The re-development of an existing application. The functional requirements of the application are known and will require a minimum or no change. Re-development may involve a change to either the hardware or software platform. Automated tools may be used to generate the application. This includes a project to re-structure or re-engineer an application to improve efficiency on the same hardware or software platform. For re-development, normally only technical analysis is required. ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Reference FSM Method A FSM Method to be used for comparison reasons when verifying the Functional Size results of a FSM Method. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-4)
Reference User Requirements (RUR) A set of user requirements used by a FSM Method or Reference FSM Method to derive Functional Size results. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-4)
regrade alteration of the grade (4.1.12) of a nonconforming product (4.3.5) so that it will then conform to different specified requirements (4.1.8) ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Relationship An association of interest between two entities. A relationship does not have attributes and does not count as a RET when counting function points. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Relationship A real-world association among one or more entities. Where the association is between an entity and itself, the relationship is said to be recursive. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Release authorisation to proceed to the next stage of a process ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Release A particular version of a configuration item that is made available for a specific purpose (for example, test release). ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Release A delivered version of an application which may include all or part of an application. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Release A collection of new and/or changed CIs which are tested and introduced into the live environment together. ITIL Sept 2002
Reliability the ability of an item to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time ( Reference : TC176:8402)
Reliability The ability of an FSM Method to produce the same results when the same Functional User Requirements are measured several times in same or different conditions (in same/different environments, by same/different people, etc.) ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-3)
Reliability The ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Remaining Duration (RDU) The time needed to complete an activity. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Repair The correction of defects that have resulted from errors in external design, internal design, or code. Examples are missing functions that do not result in application failure (external design error) or errors resulting in a stop-run situation (code error). ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
repair action taken on a nonconforming product (4.3.5) in order that it will fulfil the intended usage requirements (4.1.7). NOTE - Repair includes remedial action taken to restore, for usage, a once conforming but now nonconforming product (4.3.5) for example, as part of maintenance. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
repeatable level (See maturity level.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Request for Change (RFC) Form, or screen, used to record details of a request for a Change to any CI within an infrastructure or to procedures and items associated with the infrastructure. ITIL Sept 2002
Request for Proposal (RFP) A type of bid document used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers of products or services. In some application areas it may have a narrower or more specific meaning. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Request for proposal [tender] A document used by the acquirer as the means to announce its intention to potential bidders to acquire a specified system, software product or software service. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Request for Quotation (RFQ) Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas it may have a narrower or more specific meaning. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
required training Training required by the acquisition organization. (See training for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
requirement An essential condition that a system has to sat- ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
requirement stated or typically implied need or expectation ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
requirement A condition or capability needed by a user to solve a problem or achieve an objective. (IEEE Std 610.12) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
requirements Statements which identify the essential needs for a system in order for it to have value and utility. Requirements may be derived or based upon interpretation of stated requirements to assist in providing a common understanding of the desired operational characteristics of a system. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Requirements Analysis A systematic investigation of user requirements to arrive at a definition of a system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
Requirements Analysis The categorization and structuring of need or demand for a system. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
Requirements Analysis The process of studying user needs to arrive at a definition of system, hardware, or software requirements. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
requirements document a document containing any combination of recommendations, requirements or regulations to be met by a software package ( Reference : SC7:12119)
requirements for engineering support environment An environment in which development activities are systems supported with needed development and process enactment technology. Included are computer software, computer hardware, test equipment, etc. (See also systems engineering support environment.) [Garcia - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Reserve A provision in the project plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk. Often used with a modifier (e.g., management reserve, contingency reserve) to provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated. The specific meaning of the modified term varies by application area. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
residual risk the risk remaining after risk treatment ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Residual risk the remaining level of risk after risk treatment measures have been taken. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
resolution Action that will resolve an Incident. This may be a Work-around. ITIL Sept 2002
resource Energy or other consumables needed to perform a process. ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
resource an enterprise entity that provides some or all of the capabilities required by the execution of an enterprise activity and/or business process ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
Resource Leveling Any form of network analysis in which scheduling decisions (start and finish dates) are driven by resource management concerns (e.g., limited resource availability or difficult-to-manage changes in resource levels). ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Resource Planning Determining what resources (people, equipment, materials) are needed in what quantities to perform project activities. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Resource-Limited Schedule A project schedule whose start and finish dates reflect expected resource availability. The final project schedule should always be resource-limited. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) A structure which relates the project organization structure to the work breakdown structure to help ensure that each element of the projectís scope of work is assigned to a responsible individual. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Responsibility Chart See responsibility assignment matrix. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Responsibility Matrix See responsibility assignment matrix. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
RET See Record Element Type ( Reference : Total Metrics)
Retainage A portion of a contract payment that is held until contract completion in order to ensure full performance of the contract terms. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Retirement Withdrawal of active support by the operation and maintenance organization, partial or total replacement by a new system, or installation of an upgraded system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Reusability GSC One of the 14 general system characteristics describing the degree to which the application and the code in the application have been specifically designed, developed, and supported to be usable in other applications ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
reuse The use of an asset in the solution of different problems. ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
review formal, systematic activity undertaken to ensure the continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness (4.3.3) of the subject matter to achieve clearly established objectives EXAMPLE - Management review, audit review, review of customer requirements and nonconformity review. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
review An evaluation of software element(s) or project status to ascertain discrepancies from planned results and to recommend improvement (IEEE Std 1028-1988) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
rework action taken on a nonconforming product (4.3.5) in order that it will fulfil specified requirements (4.1.8) ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
RFC Request For Change (Reference ITIL® Sept 2002)
risk A function of the probability of occurrence of a given threat and the potential adverse consequences of that threat's occurrence. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
risk likelihood of an event occurring and its consequences ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Risk the chance of something happening that will have an impact upon objectives. It is measured in terms of consequences and likelihood. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
risk A measure of the uncertainty of attaining a goal, objective, or requirement pertaining to technical performance, cost, and schedule. Risk level is categorized by the probability of occurrence and the consequences of occurrence. Risk is assessed for program, product, and process aspects of the system. This includes the adverse consequences of process variability. The sources of risk include technical (e.g., feasibility, operability, producibility, testability, and system effectiveness); cost (e.g., estimates, goals); schedule (e.g., technology/material availability, technical achievements, milestones); and programmatic (e.g., resources, contractual). [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
risk acceptance a decision to accept a particular risk ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Risk acceptance an informed decision to accept the likelihood and the consequences of a particular risk. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
Risk analysis a systematic use of available information to determine how often specified events may occur and the magnitude of their likely consequences. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
Risk assessment the overall process of risk analysis and risk evaluation, refer to Figure 3.1. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
Risk avoidance an informed decision not to become involved in a risk situation. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
risk communication any transfer or exchange of information between stakeholders or interested parties about risk ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Risk control that part of risk management which involves the provision of policies, standards and procedures to eliminate, avoid or minimize adverse risks facing an enterprise. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
risk dimension A perspective from which risk assessment is being made for the system (eg safety, economic, security). ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
Risk engineering the application of engineering principles and methods to risk management. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
risk estimation part of the risk analysis process used to determine the magnitude of risks and their components by estimating the likelihood and consequence of events ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
risk evaluation the process used to support management decisions as to acceptability, or risk treatment requirements, by comparing the estimated risk against relevant criteria ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Risk Event A discrete occurrence that may affect the project for better or worse. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Risk financing the methods applied to fund risk treatment and the financial consequences of risk. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
Risk identification the process of determining what can happen, why and how. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
Risk Identification Determining which risk events are likely to affect the project. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
risk management the activities concerned with managing risks ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Risk management the systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to the tasks of identifying, analysing, evaluating, treating and monitoring risk. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
risk management An organized, analytic process to identify what can go wrong, to quantify and assess associated risks, and to implement/control the appropriate approach for preventing or handling each risk identified. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
risk management An approach to problem analysis which weighs risk in a situation by using risk probabilities to give a more accurate understanding of the risks involved. Risk management includes risk identification, analysis, prioritization, and control. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
risk management plan A document which describes the risk management activities to be performed on a project. [Jones - Loral FS] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
risk management system elements of a corporate management system that are concerned with managing risks ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
risk mitigation activities Actions taken to reduce the impact or likelihood of a risk. [Garcia - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
risk mitigation strategies The principles used to identify the order in which risk mitigation activities are implemented. [Jones - Loral FS] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
risk perception the importance placed by stakeholders and interested parties on a particular risk ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Risk Quantification Evaluating the probability of risk event occurrence and effect. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
risk reduction risk treatment that is applied to reduce either the likelihood or consequences, or both, of a particular risk ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Risk reduction a selective application of appropriate techniques and management principles to reduce either likelihood of an occurrence or its consequences, or both. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
Risk Response Control Responding to changes in risk over the course of the project. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Risk Response Development Defining enhancement steps for opportunities and mitigation steps for threats. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Risk retention intentionally or unintentionally retaining the responsibility for loss, or financial burden of loss within the organization. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
risk retention acceptance of responsibility for consequences in the event of a particular risk occurring ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Risk transfer shifting the responsibility or burden for loss to another party through legislation, contract, insurance or other means. Risk transfer can also refer to shifting a physical risk or part thereof elsewhere. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
risk transfer transfer to another party of responsibility for the consequences of a particular risk ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Risk treatment selection and implementation of appropriate options for dealing with risk. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
Role The participation of an entity in a relationship. Each instance of a role has a minimum and maximum cardinality, direction, and may be attributed. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
role Defined responsibilities that may be assumed by one or more individuals. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
role A set of responsibilities, activities and authorisations. ITIL Sept 2002