Metrics Glossary

Software Metrics Glossary S : Part 2

software work product Any artifact created as part of defining, maintaining, or using a software process, including process descriptions, plans, procedures, computer programs, and associated documentation, which may or may not be intended for delivery to a customer or end user. (See software product for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
software-related contractual requirements All technical and non-technical requirements related to the software portion of the acquisition. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
software-related group A collection of individuals (both managers and technical staff) representing a software engineering discipline that supports, but is not directly responsible for, software development and/or maintenance. Examples of software engineering disciplines include software quality assurance and software configuration management. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Solicitation Obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals as appropriate. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
solicitation package When seeking suppliers for a particular acquisition, it is the information distributed which tells the interested bidders what the requirements are, how to prepare their proposals, how proposals will be evaluated, and when to submit their proposals. Sometimes called Request for Proposals (RFP). ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Solicitation Planning Documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
solution (or solution set) The selected candidate solution(s) that best satisfies the analysis requirements. [Minnich - Hughes] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Source Selection Choosing from among potential contractors. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
special cause (of a defect) A cause of a defect that is specific to some transient circumstance and not an inherent part of a process. Special causes provide random variation (noise) in process performance. (See common cause for contrast.) ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
specification A detailed formulation, in document form, which provides a definitive description of a system for the purpose of developing or validating the system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
specification the document that prescribes the requirements with which the product or service has to conform ( Reference : TC176:8402)
specification document (4.7.1) stating requirements (4.1.7) NOTE - Qualifiers may be needed for this term. Examples are, product specification, process specification, test specification and performance specification. ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
specification A document that states, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a system or component, and, often, the procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. (derived from IEEE Std 610.12) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
specification A document prepared to support acquisition and life-cycle management that clearly and accurately describes essential technical requirements and verification procedures for items, materials, and services. When invoked by a contract, it is legally enforceable and its requirements are contractually binding. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
specified requirement stated need or expectation ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Specify Systems Analysis / Functional Design / External Design / Requirements Definition / Package selection ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Speed of Delivery Measures the ability of a team to deliver a quantity of software over a period of time. It is defined as the Functional Size of the delivered software (measured in Function Points) over the Project Elapsed Time (measured in months). It is expressed as FPs / elapsed month ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
sponsor (See assessment sponsor and process capability determination sponsor). ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
staff The people, including task leaders, who are not managers and who are responsible for accomplishing the assigned business function. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Staff Acquisition Getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
stage A partition of the software effort that is of a manageable size and that represents a meaningful and measurable set of related tasks which are performed by the project. A stage is usually considered a subdivision of a software life cycle and is often ended with a formal review prior to the onset of the following stage. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Staged Development Note: Where a stage of a Staged Development changes any functionality delivered in a previous stage the project should be defined and treated as an "Enhancement". ( Reference : ISBSG-Release 6 1999)
Stakeholder A party having a right, share or claim in the system or in its possession of qualities that meet their needs. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
stakeholder Individuals and organizations actively involved in a project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution, decision or closure. Acquirers, suppliers, customers, users, developers, maintainers and sponsors are examples of stakeholders. ( Reference : SC7/WG8:16326)
stakeholder a person or group having a shared interest in the management of the risk (see also interested party) ( Reference : WG on Risk Terminology:ISO TMB)
Stakeholder Individuals and organizations who are involved in or may be affected by project activities. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Stakeholders Those people and organisations who may affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by, the decision or activity. ( Reference : SAA:AS4360)
standard Mandatory requirements employed and enforced to prescribe a disciplined uniform approach to software development or acquisition. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
standard An approved, documented, and available set of criteria used to determine the adequacy of an action or object. [CMM for Software] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Standard Development Environment A set of guidelines describing a standard process lifecycle for the development of software within an organisation. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
standard process the operational definition of the basic process that guides the establishment of a common process in an organization ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15504-9)
standard process The operational definition of the basic process that guides the establishment of a common process in an organization. It describes the fundamental process elements that are expected to be incorporated into any defined process. It also describes the relationships (e.g., ordering and interfaces) between these process elements. (See also defined process.) [SPICE BPG 0.06] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
standard process family A group of standard processes within an organization that share some common characteristics, but that are different enough in their domain of applicability to be considered as separate standard processes. Organizations that find they are constantly tailoring the same areas of their standard process to meet the needs of a specific group within the organization may find the concept of a standard process family a useful way of characterizing their standard processes. [Garcia - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
standard software acquisition process (See software acquisition process.) ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Start Date A point in time associated with an activity’s start, usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, target, baseline, or current. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
state the instantaneous values of the variables of a system ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
Statement of work A document used by the acquirer as the means to describe and specify the tasks to be performed under the contract. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
statement of work A description of all the work required to complete a project, which is provided by the customer. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
Statement of Work (SOW) A narrative description of products or services to be supplied under contract. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
statistical process control A statistically based technique appropriate to analyze a process, identify special causes of variations in the performance of the process, and bring the performance of the process within well-defined limits. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
strategic vision The political, economic, and psychological forces of an organization that ensure the maximum support for the adopted market goals of the organization. In this context, strategic vision can be expressed as the architecture of a family of products. [Webster] (adapted) ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
structure the definition of the relationships among the components of an organization ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
subcontract manager A person who has direct responsibility for administering and managing a subcontract. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
subcontractor An individual, partnership, corporation, or association that contracts with an organization (i.e., the prime contractor) to design, develop, and/or manufacture one or more products. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
Subject Area A related collection of meta-object instance definitions. Subject areas are used to define scoped areas of interest. Subject areas overlap to ensure the integration of the overall Meta-model, but a tool need only use those subject areas relevant to the data to be exported/imported. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; CDIF:15474-1)
Submitter the person or organisation submitting the Candidate FSM Method and its documentation for compliance assessment ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-2)
Subnet A subdivision of a project network diagram usually representing some form of subproject. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
subprocess A process that is part of a higher level process. [Jones - IBM] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
subsystem A subsystem is any system that is part of a larger system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
Subsystem When viewing a system as comprising three or more architecture levels, one of the set of entities that constitutes a level that is intermediate between the system and components. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
subsystem A grouping of items satisfying a logical group of functions within a particular system. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Subtypes See Entity subtypes. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
Successful adoption The extent to which the use of CASE tools can measurably meet an organization's uniquely defined adoption goals. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14471)
Successor Activity (1) In the arrow diagramming method, the activity which departs a node. (2) In the precedence diagramming method, the "to" activity. ( Reference : PMI:PMBOK)
Super User In some organisations it is common to use 'expert' Users (commonly known as Super, or Expert, Users) to deal with first-line support problems and queries . This is typically in specific application areas, or geographical locations, where there is not the equirement for full-time support staff. This valuable resource needs, however, to be carefully coordinated and utilised. ITIL Sept 2002
supplier provider of a product (4.3.5) EXAMPLE - Producer, distributor, retailer, provider of a service and assembler. NOTE - The supplier can be internal or external to the organization (4.2.1). ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
Supplier An organization that enters into a contract with the acquirer for the supply of a system, software product or software service under the terms of the contract. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
Supplier An enterprise that enters into an agreement with an acquirer to supply a system. NOTES -- 1) The term is synonymous with contractor, producer, seller, or vendor. 2) The enterprise may designate a part of its own organization as supplier. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
suppliers The development, manufacturing, verification, and deployment personnel that define, design, code, fabricate, assemble, integrate, verify, test, deliver and/or install system end items, and safely dispose of the by-products of their activities. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Support See Maintenance. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
support environment technology reviews Reviews of the available support technology, including literature reviews, in-house demos, and trial usage of support technology. Such technology includes computer software, computer hardware, test equipment, etc. ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
support function The tasks, actions, and activities to be performed and the system elements required to provide operations, maintenance, logistics (including training) and materiel management support. It provides for the definition of tasks, equipment, skills, personnel, facilities, materials, services, supplies, and procedures required to ensure the proper supply, storage, and maintenance of a system end item. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
supporting function an organisation responsible for assisting the software evaluation activities through the provision of technology, tools, experiences, and management skills. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14598-2)
synthesis The combining of information, concepts, constraints, components, or elements to establish a complete and consistent system architecture, or to identify conflicts or deficiencies in established requirements or design solutions. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
System See Application. ( Reference : IFPUG CPM 4.1)
system object (4.1.6) consisting of interrelated or interacting elements ( Reference : TC176:ISO 9000:2000)
System An integrated composite that consists of one or more of the processes, hardware, software, facilities and people, that provides a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:12207)
System A discrete, distinguishable entity with a physical existence and a defined purpose completely composed of integrated and interacting components, each of which does not individually comply with the overall purpose. (ISO WD 15288) NOTE 1 - In this document the term system is used to describe a product qv., implemented in any combination of physical equipment, computer software, documentation, human tasks and organisational or management procedures. NOTE 2 - The term ‘system’ is used in this document to mean large and small systems and also equipment and products. A system can range from an entire outsourced information provision service, to a worksystem, to a consumer item such as a lawnmower. ( Reference : ISO/TC159/SC4/WG 6:HCLP-PAS)
system An interdependent group of processes, hardware, software, facilities and people constituted to satisfy a stated need or objective. (adapted from ISO 12207) ( Reference : IEEE SESC:729)
system an integrated composite that consists of one or more of the processes, hardware, software, facilities, and people, that provide a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective. [ISO/IEC 12207:1995, definition 3.31] ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:15910)
system a collection of real-world items organised for a given purpose ( Reference : TC184/SC5:15704)
system An integrated composite of people, products, and processes that provide a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions. [IEEE-STD-610] ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
system The term system is used to describe a product or service, implemented in any combination of physical equipment, computer software, documentation, tasks and organisational or management procedures. A system can range from an entire outsourced information provision service, to a worksystem, to a consumer item such as a lawnmower. ( Reference : INUSE:UMM)
System Is used synonymously for ‘software application’. It is assumed that an organisation will develop and maintain one or more software applications which will be sized using Function Point Analysis. Each set of activities which impacts the system software is called a project. ( Reference : Total Metrics)
System An integrated composite that consists of one or more of the processes, hardware, software, facilities and people, that provides a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective. ITIL Sept 2002
system analysis; Systems analysis A systematic investigation of a real or planned system to determine the information requirements and processes of the system and how these relate to each other and to any other system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
system architecture The composite of the functional, physical, and foundation architectures, which form the basis for establishing a system design. The system architecture includes the supporting requirement traceability and allocation matrices which identifies the relationship between the system design, and the elements of the functional, physical, and foundation architectures. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system configurations Configuration data and status on the current state of the system. ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system description Documentation that results from system design defining the organization essential characteristics and the hardware and software requirements of the system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
system design A process of defining the hardware and software architecture, components, modules, interfaces and date for a system to satisfy specified requirements. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
system design The product of the development process which provides sufficient details, drawings, or other pertinent information, on the system components, elements, parts, interfaces, etc., to permit the fabrication, production, assembly, integration and testing of the system under development. [IEEE P1220] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system design review A review conducted to evaluate the manner in which the requirements for a system have been allocated to configuration items, the system engineering process that produced the allocation, the engineering planning for the next phase of the effort, manufacturing considerations, and the planning for production engineering. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system development A process that usually includes requirements analysis, system design, implementation, documentation and quality assurance. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
system development The summation of the creative actions taken during the system development cycle. [Jones - Loral FS] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system development cycle The period of time that begins with the decision to develop a system and ends when the system is delivered to its end user. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system development process The engineering process employed to develop a new system. ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system documentation The collection of documents that describe the requirements, capabilities, limitations, design, operation, and maintenance of an information processing system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
system effectiveness A measure of the ability of a system to satisfy its intended operational uses when called upon to do so. System effectiveness is a composite view of how the system performs under anticipated environmental conditions, the reliability and maintainability of system parts and components, and the ability to produce, distribute, support, train, operate and dispose of the system throughout its life cycle. IEEE P1220] (adapted) ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system elements The basic constituents (hardware, software, facilities, personnel, data, material, services, or techniques) that comprise a system and satisfy one or more requirements in the lowest levels of the functional architecture. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system end item A deployed system product and/or process that is ready for its intended use. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system engineering group The collection of individuals (both managers and technical staff) who have responsibility for specifying the system requirements; allocating the system requirements to the hardware, software, and other components; specifying the interfaces between the hardware, software, and other components; and monitoring the design and development of these components to ensure conformance with their specifications. ( Reference : SEI:SW-CMM)
System follow-up; Post-implementation review; Post-developme The study of the affects of a system after it has reached a stabilized state of operational use. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
system integration The progressive assembling of system components into the whole system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
system integrity level The integrity level of a system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
system life cycle The course of developmental changes through which a system passes from its conception to the termination of its use. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
System Life Cycle That which begins with the perception of a need leading to conception, realization, utilization, evolution, and eventual disposal. ( Reference : SC7/WG7:15288)
system maintenance The modification of a system to correct faults, to improve performance, or to adapt the system to a changed environment or changed requirements. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
system requirements A description of desired capabilities, constraints, and other details which pertain to the product's functional, performance, and physical characteristics. These descriptions provide the stimulus for investigating product alternatives, and for making trade-offs among requirement sets. These requirements should establish the capabilities, physical characteristics, and customer quality attributes which define a quality product offering within the marketplace. [IEEE P1220] (adapted) ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
system requirements allocated to software The subset of the system requirements that are to be implemented in the software components of the system. ( Reference : SEI:SA-CMM)
system software Application-independent software that supports the running of application software. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
system support The continued provision of services and material necessary for the use and improvement of an implemented system. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC1:2382-20)
system testing Testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirements. [IEEE STD 610.12-1990] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
Systematic error A component of the error of measurement which remains constant, or varies in a predictable way, over the course of a number of measurements of the same object. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7:14143-3)
systematic failure A failure related in a deterministic way to a certain cause, which can only be eliminated by a modification of the design or of the manufacturing process, operational procedures, documentation or other relevant factors. ( Reference : ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7; IEC TC56:15026)
systems analysis and control The assessment and control mechanisms, including performance based progress measurements, to: • Establish system effectiveness. • Balance cost, schedule, performance, and risk. • Control the system configuration.[MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
systems engineering 1. The selective application of scientific and engineering efforts to: transform an operational need into a description of a system configuration which best satisfies the operational need according to the measures of effectiveness; integrate related technical parameters and ensure compatibility of all physical, functional, and technical program interfaces in a manner which optimizes the total system definition and design; integrate the efforts of all engineering disciplines and specialities into the total engineering effort. FM 770-78 ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
systems engineering process A comprehensive, iterative problem solving process that is used to: (a) transform validated customer needs and requirements into a life-cycle balanced solution set of system product and process designs, (b) generate information for decision makers, and (c) provide information for the next acquisition phase. The problem and success criteria are defined through requirements analysis, functional analysis/allocation, and systems analysis and control. Alternative solutions, evaluation of those alternatives, selection of the best life-cycle balanced solution, and the description of the solution through the design package are accomplished through synthesis and systems analysis and control. [MIL-STD 499B] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)
systems engineering support environment An environment in which development activities are supported with needed development and process enactment technology. These include computer software, computer hardware, test equipment, etc. [Bate - SEI] ( Reference : SEI:SE-CMM)